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Kali-sise (Pitakesulina)


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Roots   Advanced
Kali-sise has 400 nominal roots that can be freely combined to form compound words.  It also has 11 functional roots used for clauses, postpostions and verbs.  Over 93% of the vocabulary is derived from natural languages, especially Arabic, English, Hindi, Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Spanish and Indo-European; many other natural languages were examined for possible roots.

ka [From Indo-European /kw-/.] {relative clause particle}

kakate [From Latin 'actum', extant in Spanish, English, French, et al, with initial /k-/ from Hindi /karni/.] action -- the act or process of doing something

kaki [Unknown origin.] performance -- an activity or system of interaction involving two or more people (e.g., a ceremony, a contest, an opera)

kaku [Unknown origin.] deficit, shortfall, insufficiency -- a smaller quality or number or degree or amount than expected or appropriate

kakute [Truncation of /akarkut/, a blend of Esperanto 'akra' and Latin 'acutus', extent in English, Spanish, Italian, et al.] sharp object -- an object having a thin edge or a fine point suitable for or capable of cutting or piercing [scalar]

kala [From Hindi /kala/.] art -- the products of creativity; works of art collectively

kalane [From Arabic /kalam/.] communication unit -- a collection of words, oral or written or otherwise represented, conveying a central idea

kalape [From Arabic /kalab/.] change, transformation -- a qualitative alteration ["become" - v.]

kalase [From Hindi /kras/, from Latin 'crux', extant in Russian, Spanish, English, Hungarian, et al.] cross -- a shape, mark or pattern formed by the intersection of two lines

kale [From Russian /kal/.] feces, excrement -- solid excretory product

kalene [From Hindi /karn/.] agent -- person who does or brings about something

kalenu [From Latin 'carn-, caro', "flesh", extant in Spanish and English.] flesh -- the soft tissue of the body of a vertebrate: mainly muscle tissue and fat

kalepe [From French 'carbone', extant in Arabic, Hindi, English, Spanish, Italian, Esperanto, Novial.] carbon, C -- an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in three allotrophic forms (amorphous, graphite and diamond) that occur in all organic compounds

kalese [Latin 'classis', "class of citizens", extant in Russian, Spanish, English, et al.] class, kind, type -- any number of objects or events with a common attribute

kaletela [From Spanish 'carretera'.] road, route -- an open way generally public for travel or transportation

kali [From Arabic /kalim/.] word -- a unit of language that native speakers can identify

kalike [Blend of Hindi /gal/ and Arabic /halk/, with /g-l/ in Russian /glot/ and /gorl/ and in English 'gullet' and Italian 'gola', and with initial /g-/ in Spanish 'garganta', Esperanto 'gorg^o' and Novial 'guture'.] throat, pharynx -- the passage to the stomach and lungs; in the front part of the neck below the chin and above the collarbone

kaluka [Late Latin 'calculare', "to calculate", extant in English 'calculator', Spanish 'calculador', et al.] peripheral -- an auxiliary device that works with a computer, such as a printer or scanner, or a subcomponent of a computer, such as a hard drive

kalusa [Blend of Welsh 'cara' and Latin 'ca:rus', "dear, beloved", extant in Spanish, Portuguese and Italian /caro/ and in English 'caress', 'cherish', et al; similar to Ilocano /karayo/, Breton /karout/ and Georgian /qvar/.] love -- a strong positive emotion of regard and affection

kalute [Blend of Arabic /kalb/ and Hindi /kuta/, with initial /k-/ in English 'canine' and Italian 'cane'.] dog, canine -- a domesticated carnivorous mammal (Canis familiaris) related to the foxes and wolves and raised in a wide variety of breeds

kane [From Chinese /kan/.] sight, vision -- the ability to see

kaneke [From Latin 'cancer', "crab, constellation Cancer", (extant in English, et al), with initial /k-/ in Hindi /kand/ and Spanish 'casco'.] shell -- the material that forms the hard outer covering of many animals

kanela [From Late Latin 'camera', extant in English 'chamber' and 'camera (obscura)', and in Hindi /kamra/ and in Dutch, Esperanto and Novial. Initial /k-/ in Russian /komnet/.] room, chamber -- an area within a building enclosed by walls, a floor and a ceiling

kanelu [From Greek 'kamelos', of Semitic origin (extant in Latin, English and Spanish) and still current in Arabic /jamal/ and /gamal/, forms widely borrowed throughout Africa.] camel -- cud-chewing mammal of the genus Camelus used as a draft or saddle animal in desert regions

kanepuse [Latin 'campus', "field", extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al) and English 'campus', 'camp' (mnemonic: 'campsite').] field -- a piece of land cleared of trees

kanete [From Hindi /kant/, within initial /k-/ in Russian /kryuk/.] fastener -- attaching to something and holds something in place

kani [Shortened form of Dublex 'canisa', "shirt".] garment -- an article of clothing

kanisa [Late Latin 'camisa', extant in Albanian 'ke"mishe"', Amharic 'shemiz', Arabic (Egyptian) 'qamees', Aymara 'kamisa', Balinese 'kemeja', Bulgarian 'dzheb', Catalan 'camisa', Cebuano 'kamisa', English 'camise', Esperanto 'c^emizo', French 'chemise', Greek (Modern) 'poukamiso', Guarani' 'kamisa', Gujarati 'shemiz', Haitian 'chemiz', Hindi 'kamiiz', Ilonggo 'kamisa', Indonesian 'kemeja', Italian 'camicia', Javanese 'kamejo', Kharia 'kamij', Lingala 'semisi', Malay 'kemeja', Maldivian 'gamis', Maltese 'qmis', Modern Greek 'kamiso', Nepali 'kamij', Novial 'kamise', Papiamentu 'kamisa', Pima 'kamish', Portuguese 'camisa', Punjabi 'kamiiz', Pushtu 'kaemi's', Rhaeto-Romance (Sursilvan) 'camischa', Rhaeto-Romance (Ladin) 'chamischa', Romanian 'ca^masa', Sinhalese 'ka'misay', Somali 'qamiis', Sundanese 'kamedja', Spanish 'camisa', Tupuri 'si"mi'si"', Tagalog 'kamisa', Urdu 'kamiiz' and Wolof 'ceemis/simis'. Typically meaning is "shirt", but in some cases may mean "blouse", "chemise" or "undershirt". Source: Leo Moser, The Acadon System.] shirt -- a garment worn on the upper part of the body

kanuna [From Arabic & Hindi /kanun/, both from Latin 'canon', "rule", also extant in English 'canon', et al.] law -- the collection of rules imposed by an authority

kanune [From Old Italian 'cannone', extant in Spanish, Germanic (English, German, Dutch) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial), et al.] cannon -- a large gun that is usually on wheels

kapase [From Arabic /kafaz/ with initial /k-/ in Hindi /kud/.] jump -- the act of leaping

kape [From Italian 'caffe' (itself from Arabic /kahwa/), which has been borrowed into most languages, including AfghanDari'kaafi', Afrikaans'koffie', Albanian'kafe', Amoy'gkou-bpih', Arabic (Egyptian) 'qahwa', Arabic (Gulf) 'gahwa', Arabic (Iraqi) 'gahwa', Arabic (Libyan) 'gahwa', Arabic (Morroco) 'qehwa', Arabic (Syria) 'qahwi', Asturian 'café', Aymara 'kap"iya', Azerbaijani 'qehve', Bambara 'kafe', Bashkir 'kofe', Basque 'kafe', Belarus 'kava', Bengali 'kophi', Bosnian 'kahva', Breton 'kafe', Bulgarian 'kafe', Burmese 'kahpi', Cambodian 'gaafay/kaafii', Cantonese 'gaafè', Catalan 'cafè', Cebuano 'kape', Chechen 'kofi', Chinese(Standard) 'ka-fei-', Chinook Jargon 'kaupy', Comanche 'tuhpaé', Corsican 'caffè', Croatian 'kava', Czech 'ka'va/kafe', Danish 'kaffe', Dholuo 'kahawa', Dutch 'koffie', Egyptian Arabic 'qahwa', English 'coffee', Estonian 'kohvi', Farsi 'ghah'veh', Fiji-Hindi 'kaafii', Fijian 'kove', Finnish 'kahvi', French 'caf,', Frisian 'kofje', Ga(Ghana) 'kafe', Galician 'caf,', Georgian 'qava', German 'Kaffee', Greek 'kafe', Greek (Modern) 'kafes', Gujarati 'kOffee', Haitian 'kafe', Hakka 'kafui', Hausa 'kofi', Hawaiian 'kope', Hebrew 'kafe', Hindi 'kofii/kaapii', Hopi 'kaphe', Hungarian 'ka've'', Icelandic 'kaffi', Igbo '', Ilocano 'kape/cafe', Ilocano 'kape', Indonesian 'kopi', Iñupiat(Eskimo) 'kuukpiat', Irish 'caife', Italian 'caffè', Japanese 'koohii', Javanese 'kopi', Kazakh 'kofe', KiKongo 'kafi', Kikuyu 'kahu~a', Kongo 'kafi', Konkani(Goa) 'cafi', Korean 'k'op'i', Kurdish 'qehwe', Kyrgyz 'kofe', Lao 'kaaféh', Latin(Modern) 'coffea', Latvian 'kafija', Lingala 'kafe/kawa', Lithuanian 'kava', Luganda 'kaawa', Macedonian 'kafe', Malagasy 'kafe', Malay 'kopi', Malayalam 'kaapi', Maldivian 'kofi', Maltese 'kafè', Mandarin 'ka-fei-,', Mandinka 'kafee', Marshallese 'kuobe', Maya 'kaape', Mohawk 'kahwe', Mokilese 'koahpi', Mongolian 'kofi', Moroccan Arabic 'qehwa', Navajo 'gohwééh', Nepali 'kafi', Norwegian 'kaffe', Occitan 'cafè', Pangasinan 'kapi', Papago 'ka-whih', Papiamentu 'kòfi', Persian 'ghahve', Pima 'ko-whih', Polish 'kawa', Portuguese 'cafe'', Punjabi 'kaafii', Pushtu 'qawae', Quechua 'kafiy', Raratongan 'kaope', Rhaeto-Romance (Ladin) 'cafè', Rhaeto-Romance (Sursilvan) 'caffè', Romanian'cafea', Russian 'kofe', Samoan 'kofe', Sepedi 'kofi', Serbian 'kafa', Sesotho 'kofi', Shona 'kofi', Sicilian 'caffè', Sindhi 'kafi', Sinhalese 'koopi', Slovak 'ka'va', Slovenian 'kava', Somali 'qahwe', Sotho 'kofi', Spanish 'café', Sranan 'kofi', Sundanese 'koppi', Swahili 'kahawa', Swazi 'khofi', Swedish 'kaffe', Tagalog 'kape', Tahitian 'taofe', Taiwanese 'ka-pi', Tamil 'kaapi', Tatar 'kofe', Telegu 'kaafii', Thai 'gafae', Tibetan 'kafi', Tongan 'kofi', Trukese 'kofi', Tswana 'kofi', Turkish 'kahve', Twi 'kafe', Uighur 'qa"hva" ', Ukrainian 'kava', Urdu 'kofii', Uzbek 'kofe/qahva', Vietnamese 'kafe', Welsh 'coffi', Wolof 'kafe', Xhosa 'ikofu', Yiddish 'kave', Yoruba 'kofi'', Yucatec(Mayan) 'kaape' and Zulu 'ikhofi'. Source: Leo Moser, The Acadon System.] coffee -- the beverage consisting of an infusion of ground coffee seeds

kapina [From Mandarin Chinese /kapyan/ with initial /k/ in Greek 'khartes', extant in Russian, Hindi, Germanic (English, German, Dutch), Romance (Latin, Spanish), auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial), .] card -- thin cardboard, usually rectangular

kapita [From Late Latin 'capitaneus', "chief", extant in words for captain in Arabic, Russian, Hindi, Spanish and English.] leader -- a person who rules or guides or inspires others

kaputa [From Indo-European *kaput-, "head", extant in Spanish 'cabeza', English 'head', 'captain' ("head of a boat"), 'capital' ("head city of a government"), 'decapitate', et al., Indonesian and Malay 'kepala', German 'Kopf', Nepali 'kapal', Romanian 'capul', Modern Greek 'kephali', Javanese 'kepala', et al.] head -- the upper or front part of the body in animals; contains the face and brains

kase [From Dutch 'gas', a scientific term that is widespread internationally (Arabic, Russian, Spanish, German, English, Italian, Esperanto, Novial, et al).] gas -- fluid in its freest state having neither definite shape or volume and being able to expand indefinitely

kasele [From Arabic /kasr/.] fraction -- quotient of two rational numbers

kasese [From Russian /kashestv/. Initial /k-/ reinforced by Spanish /kalidad/.] abstraction -- concept without any specific instance; quality or property exhibited by something

kasu [Latin 'causa', extant in Spanish and English, with initial /k-/ in Hindi /karn/.] cause -- someone or something that produces an effect, result or consquence

kata [From /kat-/, a common form attested in Arabic(Egyptian) 'qat,a`' /kata/, Arabic(Syrian) 'qat,' /kat/, Assamese 'kat.a-', Bengali 'kat.i;', Bislama 'katem', Cambodian 'gut', Cantonese 'got', English 'cut', Fijian 'kotiva', Fiji-Hindi 'kaat.-', Hakka 'kot', Hindi /kat/, Ilocano 'ickat', Kannada 'kadhe', Lamani 'kaat.', Lingala 'kata', Maltese 'qata'', Nepali 'kaat-', Oriya 'kat.a', Oromo(Galla) 'kuta', Portuguese 'cort-', Punjabi 'kat.t.', Sotho 'kuta', Spanish 'cort-', Swahili '-kata', Urdu /kat/ and Vietnamese 'ca`t'. Initial /k-/ in Achenese 'koh', Afrikaans 'keep/kap', Azerbaijani 'kes', Gujarati 'kaap-', Haitian 'koupe', Japanese 'kir-' (as in 'hara-kir-i'', "belly-cutting")', Kazakh 'kesu', Kyrgyz 'kes-', Maldivian 'kand-', Mandarin Chinese /ke-/ forms meaning "cut', carve', engrave"', Mandingo 'kuntu', Modern Greek 'ko'phto', Russian /kos/ ("mow"), Shona 'cheka', Sundanese 'keureut', Tatar 'kisü', Telegu 'koos-', Turkish 'kesit', Uighur 'käs-' and Uzbek 'kes-'. Source: Leo Moser, The Acadon System.] cut, cutting -- a part removed from a main body through use of a sharp-edged instrument

katale [From Arabic /kadar/] dirt, ground -- the loose soft material that makes up a large part of the surface of land

katate [From Russian /kvadrat/.] square -- a plane rectangle with four equal sides and four right angles

kate [From Greek 'cardia' from Indo-European *kerd-, extant in Arabic, Hindi, Romance (Latin 'cardia', Spanish, Italian, et al), Germanic (English 'heart', German, Dutch) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] heart -- the hollow muscular organ whose rhythmic contractions pump blood through the body

katipa [From Arabic /kadib/.] bar, rod, rail -- any long, thin implement made of metal or wood

katipe [From Arabic /katif/.] dense something -- something with relatively high density (the quantity of something per unit measure, especially for area, but also for length or volume) [scalar]

katuse [Blend of Arabic /kat/ and Russian /koshk/, with /kat-/ also in English 'cat', German 'katze', Dutch 'kat' and with /-ato-/ from Spanish 'gato' and Italian 'gatto'.] cat -- feline mammal usu. having thick soft fur Felis catus

ke [Unknown origin.] {postposition}

keke [Unknown origin.] sibling -- a person's brother or sister

kelane [From Russian & English /klan/.] family -- a social unit living together

kelepasi [From Spanish 'celebración'.] celebration, rejoicing, jubilee -- an occasion for special festivities to mark some happy event

kelepe [Blend of Hindi /kel/ and Arabic /laib/, influenced by Latin 'celebrare', extant in English, Spanish, et al.] play, diversion -- activity engaged in for enjoyment or recreation

kelesu [From Indo-European *ghre-so-, extant in Hindi /gas/, and English & German & Dutch /gras/.] grass -- narrow-leaved green herbage, grown in lawns, used as pasture for grazing animals, cut and dried as hay

kelu [From Indo-European *kwetwores.] four -- the cardinal number that is the sum of three and one

kelupe [From Germanic /grup/, extant in Afrikaans 'groep', Albanian 'grup', Azerbaijani 'qrup', Bashkir 'gruppa', Belarus 'grupa', Bosnian 'grupa', Cambodian 'grom', Catalan 'grup', Chamorro 'gurupu', Croatian 'grupa', Danish 'gruppe', Dutch 'groep', English 'group', Esperanto 'grupo', French 'groupe', Ga 'kuu', Georgian 'jgupfi', German 'gruppe', Greek (Modern) 'group', Haitian 'gwoup', Hausa 'gungu', Hindi 'giroh', Ilokano 'grupo', Indonesian '*grup' (in some set phrases), Italian 'gruppo', Japanese '*guruup' (in some set phrases), Javanese 'grup', Latvian 'grupa', Lithuanian 'grupe', Macedonian 'grupa', Maltese 'grupp', Norwegian 'gruppe', Novial 'grupe', Persian 'goruh', Polish 'grupa', Portuguese 'grupo', Romanian 'grupa^', Russian 'gruppa', Serbian 'grupa', Slovene 'gruc^a', Spanish 'grupo', Swedish 'grupp', Tajik 'gruppa', Tatar 'grupa', Tongan 'kulupu', Turkish 'grup', Twi 'kuw', Ukrainian 'grupa', Urdu 'gyroh', Uzbek 'gruppa', Welsh 'grwp', West-Armenian 'khump' and Yiddish 'grupe'. Source: Leo Moser, The Acadon System.] group -- any number of objects or events aggregated together in an unstructured fashion

kene [From Mandarin Chinese /ken/ (meaning "cave"), with /k-/ strengthened by words for "cave" in Arabic /kaxf/, Hindi /kandra/, Spanish /kov/, English /kaiv/ and .] hole, orifice -- an opening into something but not through it [contrast 'hubac']

kepata [From Spanish 'cebada'.] barley -- the grain of Hordeum vulgare or its varieties, used since prehistoric times for livestock feed, malt production and cereal

kesinu [From Mandarin Chinese /keciue/.] science -- any domain of knowledge accumulated by systematic study and organised by general principles

kesu [From Indo-European *kers-, "to run", extant in Latin 'currere', extant in English 'cursor', 'course', 'corral', et al.] running movement -- moving fast by using one's feet, with one foot off the ground at any given time

kiki [Unknown origin.] measure, measurement -- magnitude as determined by calculation

kipele [English 'cyber-'.] cyberspace -- all or part of a computer's storage space, whether temporary like RAM or permanent like a hard drive

kipu [From Latin 'curvus', extant in Russian, English, Spanish, Italian, German, Esperanto and Novial. Vowel altered from /u/ due to a clash with an "unprintable" Russian word for "whore".] curve -- a line that smoothly and continuously deviates from straightness

kisa [From Hindi & Arabic /kisa/.] story, tale -- a narrative account describing incidents or events

kisile [From Russian /kisl/ and Latin 'acidus', extant in Spanish, English, Italian, Esperanto and Novial.] acid -- a substance having a pH of less than 7.0

kita [From Arabic /gida/.] food -- any substance that can be metabolised by an organism to give energy or build tissue

kitala [Spanish 'guitarra' /gitar-/ has been adopted into every major language, including Mandarin Chinese (/jita/). Present in Arabic, English, Hindi, Russian, Spanish, Italian, German, Dutch, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] guitar -- a stringed instrument usu. having four, five or six strings, played by strumming or picking

kitapa [From Arabic /kitab/, with /kit-/ in Roumanian stem 'cit-', "read", and with initial /k-/ in Russian /knig/, "book".] book -- a copy of a written work or composition that has been published on pages bound together

ku [From Chinese /ku/, with initial /k-/ in Arabic /kas/ and Romance /kruel/ forms (ultimately from Latin 'crudelis', "cruel", extant in Spanish, English, Hindi (/krur/), et al.] violence -- the use of physical force for the purpose of violating, damaging or abusing people, animals or property

kukitu [From Latin 'cognitio', extant in Spanish, English, et al.] knowledge -- the psychological result of perception, learning and reasoning

kuku [Unknown origin.] lightning -- the flash of light that accompanies an electric discharge in the atmosphere

kula [From Arabic /kura/.] sphere -- three-dimensional closed surface such that each point is equidistant from another

kuleke [From Latin 'corect-', extant in Spanish, English, et al.] correct -- the state of being free from errors or mistakes

kulepe [From Russian /koleb/, with initial /k-/ in Arabic /khaz/ and Hindi /khil/.] oscillation -- movement or swinging from side to side regularly; as of a pendulum

kulepu [From Spanish 'cuerpo de agua'.] body of water -- part of the earth's surface covered with water

kulete [From Greek 'khorde', extant in Latin, Spanish, Italian, English, Dutch, Novial, et al.] string, thread -- a lightweight cord, typically used for weaving, fastening, tying or lacing

kulisu [From Russian /koliso/, with /kol/- used in most other Slavic languages.] wheel -- a simple machine of a circular frame that can rotate on a shaft or axle

kulule [Latin 'color', extant in English 'color', Spanish 'colour', Italian 'colore', Dutch 'kleur', Esperanto 'koloro' and Novial 'kolore'.] color -- a visual attribute of things that results from the light they emit, transmit or reflect

kulupe [From Russian /glubok/, with initial /g-/ in Hindi /gakhr/.] deep object -- something with relatively great extent downward, backward or inward [scalar]

kuna [From Latin 'comparare', extant in Spanish and English, with initial /k-/ in Arabic /karan/.] comparison -- examining resemblences or differences

kunane [Blend of Spanish /kom/ and Old French 'mangier', extant in English ('manger'), Italian, Esperanto and Novial, with initial /k-/ in Hindi /kha/.] eating -- the act of taking in solid food

kunapale [From Hindi /gunanpal/.] multiplication -- an arithmetic computation that is the inverse of division; the product of numbers is computed

kunase [From Arabic /kumash/, with initial /k-/ in English 'cloth' /kloth/ and Hindi /kapna/.] cloth, fabric -- something made by weaving, felting, knitting or crocheting natural or synthetic fibres

kune [From Latin 'contra-', extant in English, et al.] opposite extreme, polar opposite -- the direct contrast

kunete [From Latin 'condition', extant in English and Spanish, et al.] condition, state, status -- the way something is in respect to its main attributes

kunune [From Latin 'comunicare', extant in Spanish, English, Italian, Esperanto, Novial, et al., with intial /k-/ in Arabic /kalam/.] communication -- the activity of exchanging information

kunuse [From Russian, German, Dutch and Esperanto /konus-/, with initial /kon-/ in Spanish, English, Italian and Novial forms.] cone -- a shape whose base is round and whose sides taper up to a point

kupake [From Arabic /kub/ and Russian /kubak/, both from Late Latin 'cuppa', also borrowed into Spanish, English and Dutch; initial /k-/ in Hindi /kator/.] cup -- a small open container usu. used for drinking

kupate [From Late Latin 'combattere', extant in Romance (French, Spanish) and English, with initial /k-/ in Arabic.] fight, combat, conflict -- a conflict between opposing groups, in which each attempts to gain power over the other

kupe [From English 'cover', with initial /k-/ in Russian /kriv/.] cover -- something that serves to protect or conceal something

kupi [From Medieval Latin 'copia', extant in Russian, Romance (Spanish and Italian), Germanic (English, Dutch) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial). (Arabic root /k-l-d/.)] copy, a duplicate -- a reproduction of something

kupu [Blend of Hindi /kor/ with Germanic /bor/ (from *border, extant in French, Italian, English and Novial). Initial /k-/ strengthened by Russian /krai/.] edge -- the boundary of a surface

kupute [From /komp-/ and /kamp-/ forms used in Russian, Germanic (English, German, Dutch), Italian and Esperanto.] computer -- a programmable electronic machine that automatically performs mathematical and logical calculations

kuse [From Spanish /kos/, with initial /k-/ in English 'cook'.] food preparation -- the act of readying food for eating, typically by cooking

kusete [From Russian /kost/, with /-ost/ reinforced by Greek 'osteon', "bone" (extant in English osteo-, Esperanto 'osto', et al).] bone, os -- rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates

kusulu [From Arabic /kuhul/, which has been adopted (with its definite article, 'al') into Russian, Hindi, English, Spanish, German, Dutch, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] alcohol -- any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds made from hydrocarbons by distillation

kusune [From Greek 'kosmos', extant in Russian, English, et al.] outer space -- any region of space outside Earth's atmosphere

kutane [From Arabic /kudam/.] front -- the forward part or surface of something

kutu [From Indo-European *okto(u), extant in English 'eight', 'octave', 'octogenarian', 'octopus', et al, extant in Greek and Latin /okto/, in Spanish, Hindi, German, Dutch, Italian, Esperanto and Novial.] eight -- the cardinal number that is the sum of seven and one

kutule [From English 'control', adopted into Russian, Spanish, Italian and Novial.] control -- power to direct or determine

lala [Unknown origin.] time -- an instance or single occasion of some event, e.g. "do it 3 times"

lalu [Unknown origin.] iron, Fe -- a heavy ductile magnetic metallic element

lanase [From Germanic *langaz, "long", extant in English, German, Dutch, Italian, Esperanto, Novial, with initial /l-/ in 'largo' and Hindi /lamb/.] long object -- something with relatively large length (a measure of the gap between two spaces) [scalar]

lane [From Mandarin Chinese /lyan/, with initial /l-/ in Russian /lico/.] face -- human face: the front of the head from the forehead to the chin and ear to ear; "he washed his face"

lanese [Latin 'lancea', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian), Germanic (English, Dutch) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] spear, lance -- a long pointed rod used as a weapon

lani [From Arabic /lami/.] intensity, emphasis -- exceptionally great concentration, power or force {intensive}

lapati [From Latin 'lavatio', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian), English and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] washing -- the process of cleansing using water and/or chemicals

lape [From Greek 'lampas', extant in Romance (Latin, Italian), Germanic (English, German, Dutch) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] lamp -- an artificial source of visible illumination

lati [Truncation of 'radio', in origin an English or Italian term, now extant in Arabic, Hindi, Russian, Spanish, German, Dutch, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] radio -- an electronic device that detects, demodulates, and amplifies transmitted signals

latu [From German /laut/.] loud object -- something that emits a relatively high amplitude sound

le [Unknown origin.] {first-person pronoun}

lele [Unknown origin.] male -- a person or animal that belongs to the sex that cannot have babies

lene [From English 'learn', from a common Germanic root attested in German, Dutch, Esperanto, Novial.] learning -- the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge

lepe [From Russian /lyev/, Latin /laev-/ and English 'left'.] left -- the side to the north when a person is facing east

lepeta [From Latin 'repetare', "to seek again", extant in Spanish, English, et al.] repetition -- event that repeats [acts as a frequentative]

lepeti [From Late Latin 'reptile', extant in English, Spanish, Italian, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] reptile, reptilian -- any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Reptilia including tortoises, turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles and extinct forms

lesune [From Old French 'raison', extant in Russian, Spanish, English, Novial.] reason, explanation, justification, rationale -- a rational motive for a belief or action

lete [From Romance -el, -et, -elet, extant in English -let ('booklet'), -ette, et al.] little -- a small amount or duration {diminutive}

li [Unknown origin.] {postposition}

liku [From Latin 'liquidus', extant in Spanish, English, Italian, Esperanto and Novial.] liquid -- a fluid substance having no fixed shape but a defined volume

lili [Unknown origin.] world -- a part of the universe that can be considered separately; often used for a planet

line [From Latin 'linea', extant in Russian, Spanish, English, German, Dutch, Italian, Esperanto, Novial.] line -- a two-dimensional object without breadth or thickness

lipe [From Latin 'libertas', "freedom", extant in Spanish, English, French, Italian, Esperanto and Novial.] freedom, liberty -- the power to act, speak or think without externally imposed restraints

lise [From Old Italian 'riso', extant in Russian /ris/, English /ris/, German 'Reis', Dutch 'rijst', Esperanto 'rizo' and Novial 'rise'. The Old Italian form is from Latin 'oryza', extant in Spanish 'arroz'.] rice -- annual or perennial rhizomatous marsh grasses; seed used for food, straw used for paper

lisepe [From Latin 'reciprocus', extant in Spanish and English, with sound influenced by Hindi /apsi/.] reciprocity -- relation of mutual dependence or action or influence

lu [From Mandarin Chinese /lue/.] fall -- the act or an instance of dropping (being pulled downward by gravity)

luka [From Vulgar Latin *rocca, extant in English & Spanish /rok/.] rock, stone -- lump of hard consolidated mineral matter

luke [From Russian /luk/ and English /lik/.] allium -- onion, garlic, leek or similar plants of the genus Allium

luku [From Latin 'locus', extant in English 'location', Italian 'luogo', Esperanto 'loko', Novial 'loke' and German 'Lage'.] location, position -- the particular portion of space occupied by a physical object

lulu [Unknown origin.] excess -- something beyond a limit or beyond what is necessary or appropriate

luna [Latin 'luna', extant in Russian, Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al), English ('lunar') and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] moon, Moon -- any natural satellite of a planet, typically the natural satellite of the Earth

lune [From Hindi /arun/, with initial /r-/ in English 'red' & 'rouge', Spanish 'rojo', German 'rot', Dutch 'rood', Italian 'rosso', Esperanto 'rug^a', Novial 'red', et al.] red -- the quality or state of the chromatic color resembling the hue of blood

lunene [From Latin 'lumen', from Indo-European *leuk-, extant in Spanish, Italian, Germanic (English, German, Dutch), Esperanto and Novial.] light -- visible electro-magnetic radiation

lupete [From German 'Luft', extant in English borrowed term 'Luftwaffe'. Close in form to Dutch 'lucht'.] air -- a mixture of gases (esp. oxygen) required for breathing, the region above the ground

luse [From Hindi /ruksh/, with initial /r-/ in English, German, Dutch, Italian and Novial word forms.] rough object -- something with a relatively irregular surface [scalar]

na [Unknown origin.] {postposition}

nala [Latin 'mal-', extant in English and Romance.] disparagement, pejoration -- low opinion {derogative, pejorative}

nalake [Blend of Russian /malako/, English /milk/ and Indo-European *g(a)lakt-, extant in Greek 'galakt-' (whence English 'galaxy'), Latin 'lact-' (whence English 'lactose', 'lactate', etc., Spanish 'leche', Italian 'latte', Esperanto 'lakto', et al).] milk -- white nutritious liquid secreted by animals and used as food by human beings

nale [Latin 'mare', extant in Russian /mor/, Spanish /mar/, English 'maritime', German 'Meer', Italian 'mare', Esperanto 'maro' and Novial 'mare'.] ocean, sea -- a very large body of salt water

nalike [From Hindi /malik/ and Arabic /malak/.] possession -- anything that is had or owned [when used as a verb, in form

nalusu [From Russian /naruju/.] outside -- the space beyond the outer surface

nana [Unknown origin.] electricity -- a form of energy associated with moving electrons and protons

nane [From Late Latin 'mammalis', "of the breast", extant in English 'mammal', Spanish 'mamífero', Italian 'mammifero', with initial /m-/ strengthened by Russian /mlikapitayuc/.] mammal -- any warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive, except for the small subclass of monotremes, and nourished with milk

nanepu [From Mandingo (Bambara) 'ñambu', extant in Arabic, Russian, Spanish, English, et al.] tuber -- a swollen, fleshy, typically subterranean stem such as the potato and yam, bearing buds from which new shoots grow

nanese [Forms like /mantsa/ are common from Slavic to Sanscrit. With /m-s/ in Russian /myas/ and /m-/ in English 'meat'. From Acadon.] meat -- the flesh of animals (incl. birds, fishes, snails, et al) when used as food

nanete [From Latin 'mandare', "order" (extant in Spanish /demand-/, English 'mandate', Italian, Esperanto and Novial /komand-/ et al), reinforced by Mandarin Chinese /min/, and Arabic /amar/.] command, instruction -- a code telling a computer to perform a particular operation; the code ranges from a machine code to a line of source code in a high-level programming language

nani [Shortened form of Hindi /naram/, influenced by Arabic /naim/.] soft object -- an object that yields readily to pressure

nanu [From Greek 'papuros', extant in Latin, Spanish /papel-/, French, Germanic (English, German, Dutch), et al.] paper -- a material made of cellulose pulp derived mainly from wood, rags or certain grasses

napase [From Arabic /nafas/.] competition -- the act of striving with others to attain a goal

napate [From Arabic /nabat/.] increase -- a process of becoming larger

nape [Blend of English 'ma' & 'pa', which have many cognates throughout the world (/m*-/ for "mother" is extremely widespread). Reversal of Acadon 'pa' & 'ma' combination.] parent -- a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to a child

napine [From Hindi /navin/.] frequent event -- an event that occurs relatively often within a given time period [scalar]

napisu [From Russian /navirzhu/.] something above -- something at a position overhead

napu [From Sona /apu/.] obscenity -- something offensive to standards of decency [typically appended to a word to make it obscene: e.g., _duvpig_ is "buttocks", but _duvpigfac_ is "ass"]

nasala [Blend of Russian /nashin/ and Arabic /shara/.] source, origin -- the place where something begins, where it springs into being

nase [From Indo-European *nas-, extant in Russian, Hindi, Latin, Spanish, English, et al.] nose, olfactory organ -- the organ of smell and entrance to the respiratory tract; the prominent part of the face of man or other mammals

naseke [From Latin 'nascens', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian, Esperanto and Novial) and English 'nascent'.] birth -- the time when life begins

nasi [From Latin 'machine' (from Indo-European *magh-ana- by way of Greek), extant in Arabic, Russian, Hindi, Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al), Germanic (English, German, Dutch, et al), and auxilaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] machine -- any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist the performance of human tasks

nasiku [From Russian /nasikoma/.] insect -- small air-breathing arthropod of the class Insecta, with adult stage having three pairs of legs

nasine [From Arabic /nasim/.] wind -- air moving sometimes with considerable force from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure

nasini [From Russian /mashin/.] vehicle -- a conveyance that transports people or objects

nati [From Latin 'matiera', extant in Arabic, Russian, Romance (Spanish, Italian), Germanic (English, German, Dutch) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] matter, material, substance -- that which has mass and occupies space

natinu [From Old French 'nation' (from Latin 'natio'), extant in Russian, Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al), Germanic (English, German, Dutch, et al) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] nation, country, state, political entity -- a politically organised body of people under a single government

natu [Contraction of Latin 'maturus', extant in Russian, English, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] adult -- a fully developed person or creature from maturity onward

natula [From Latin 'natura', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al), Germanic (English, German, Dutch, et al) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] nature -- that which occurs spontaneously, the non-artificial world; in compounds refers to something natural as opposed to something manmade

ne [From Indo-European /-em/.] {second-person pronoun}

nelike [From Hindi 'mrig', with initial /m-/ in Mandarin Chinese 'mi'.] deer, cervid -- distinguished from Bovidae by the male's having solid deciduous antlers

nelu [From Italian 'nero', from Latin 'niger', extant in Romance (Spanish, Portuguese, Esperanto, Novial, et al) and English 'Negro'.] black, blackness -- the quality or state of the achromatic color of the least lightness

nene [From Indo-European *newn, extant in Hindi *naw, Romance (Latin, Italian, et al), Spanish, Germanic (English, German, Dutch, et al) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] nine -- the cardinal number that is the sum of eight and one

nenu [Unknown origin.] egg -- animal reproductive body consisting of an ovum or embryo together with nutritive and protective envelopes; esp. the thin-shelled reproductive body laid by e.g. female birds

nese [From Hindi /mesh/.] sheep -- woolly usu. horned ruminant mammal related to the goat

nesete [From Russian /miest/, with initial /m-/ in the Arabic locative (inter alia) prefix /ma-/.] site -- piece of land where something is or will be located

nesetu [From English 'nest', with initial /n-/ in Spanish /nid/ and Hindi /nir/. Close in initial sound to Russian /gnizdo/.] nest, house, lair, den -- a dwelling place for humans or animals

netale [From Greek 'metallon', extant in Romance (Latin, Spanish, Italian), Russian, Arabic, Germanic (English, German, Dutch).] metal -- any of several chemical elements with loose valence electrons

nete [Backformation from English 'Internet', widely borrowed around the world, with influence from Indo-European *ned-, "to tie, to bind", extant in English 'net' and Latin 'nexus', 'nectare', et al.] net -- interconnected or intersecting configuration or system of components

neti [From Indo-European *mn-ti-, extant in Hindi, Romance (Latin, Spanish, Italian), English, auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial), with initial /m-/ in Russin /misl/.] mind -- that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings

netu [From Indo-European *medhyo-, extant in Hindi, Slavic (Russian, et al), Romance (Latin, Spanish, Italian) and Germanic (English, German, Dutch).] middle, center -- a point equidistant from the ends of a line or the extremities of a figure

nike [From Russian /nik/, "one associated with or characterized by", borrowed into English as '-nik' by way of Yiddish. ] worker, seller, professional -- a person associated with a particular work or service

nikule [From Greek 'mikro-', widely borrowed.] tiny object/event -- a very small amount or duration {diminutive}

nila [From Sanskrit /nila-/, "indigo, dark blue", extant in Arabic 'nil', Bengali = 'niil', English 'anil', Hindi 'niilaa', Indonesian 'nila', Malay 'nila', Papago 'anihl', Portuguese 'anil', Panjabi 'nilla', Persian 'nil', Spanish 'añil', Swahili 'nili', Tagalog 'anyil' and Urdu 'nil'.] blue -- the quality or state of the chromatic color resembling the hue of the clear sky at daytime

nilite [Latin 'militaris', extant in Germanic (English, German, Dutch, at al), auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al) and Italian.] military -- the military forces of a nation or faction

nine [From Hindi /min/ and English 'minnow'.] fish -- any of various mostly cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates usu. having scales and breathing through gills

nini [Unknown origin.] whatchamacallit -- an item or thing that has no name or that has a name but the speaker can't remember it

nu [From Indo-European *oynos.] one -- the smallest natural number or a numeral representing such a number

nuka [From Russian /noga/, as there was no correspondence between the forms in the six cardinal languages (discounting using the English synonym 'member' to match Spanish 'miembro').] limb -- one of the jointed appendages of an animal used for locomotion or grasping: arm; leg; wing; flipper

nuku [From Hindi /muk/, with /mu-/ reinforced by German 'Mund', with initial /m-/ in Dutch 'mond' and English 'mouth'. Inspired by Acadon 'muc', "lower face".] mouth, oral cavity -- the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge

nulute [From Russian /molot/, from Latin 'malleus', extant in Romance (Spanish 'martillo', Italian 'martello'), Hindi /martual/ and English 'mallet'.] hammer -- a hand tool with a rigid heavy head and a handle; used to deliver an impulsive force by striking

nune [Blend of Latin 'non' & Germanic /n-t/. Latin 'non' is extant in Spanish, Italian, French, Novial, et al., while Germanic /n-t/ is extant in English 'not', German 'nicht', Dutch 'niet', et al.] negation -- the act or progress of nullifying or making something inactive or invalid

nunene [Consensus form derived from descendants of Indo-European *no-men-, extant in Achenese 'nan', Afrikaans 'naam', Albanian 'nam', Assamese 'nam', Bengali 'naam', Bislama 'nem', Burmese 'name', Catalan 'nom', Chamorro 'na`an', Danish 'navn', Dari(Afghan) 'nam', Dumaki 'noom', Dutch 'naam', English 'name', Esperanto 'nomo', Estonian 'nimi', Finnish 'nimi', French 'nom', German 'Name', Gujarati 'naam', Haitian 'non', Hindi 'naam', Iban (SeaDayak) 'nama', Indonesian 'nama', Italian 'nome', Japanese 'namae', Javanese 'nama', Kashmiri 'naam', Kharia 'n~imi', Khowar 'namo/namen', Lamani 'naam', Malay 'nama', Malayalam 'naamam', Maldivian 'nama', Marathi 'nav/naama', Nepali 'nama', Norwegian 'navn', Novial 'nome', Oriya 'naama', Persian 'naam', Portuguese 'nome', Punjabi 'naa~/naam', Pushtu 'nuum', Romanian 'nume', Sanskrit 'naaman', Sinhalese 'nama', Spanish 'nombre', Swedish 'namn', Thai '*nam', Tirahi 'naam', TokPisin 'nem', Turkish '*nam', Urdu 'naam', Uzbek 'nom', and Yiddish 'nomen'. Initial /n-/ in Bhojpuri 'na~', Bosnian 'naziv', Cebuano 'ngalan', Hungarian 'ne'v', Icelandic 'nafn', Ilocano 'nagan', Ilonggo 'ngalan', Konknni (Goa) 'na~va', Kumauni 'na~w', Kurdish 'nav', Lahnda 'na~', Romany (Czech Gypsy) 'nav', Sindhi 'naala', Tagalog 'ngalan' and Ukrainian 'nazva'. The following forms are from the IE root, but no longer have initial /n-/: Armenian(East) 'anun', Breton 'anv', Irish 'ainm', Modern Greek 'onoma', Russian /imen/ and Welsh 'enw'. Source: Leo Moser, The Acadon System.] name -- a language unit by which a person or thing is known

nunesu [From Indo-European *nom-eso- (later *nom-ero-), extant in Russian (the form used here), Romance (Latin, Spanish, Italian, et al), Germanic (English, German, Dutch, et al) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] number, numeral -- a symbol used to represent a number

nunete [From Latin 'montanus', extant in Spanish, Italian, English, Esperanto, Novial.] mountain, mount -- a land mass that projects well above its surroundings; higher than a hill

nuni [Unknown origin.] absence -- a deficiency or lack of something

nuninali [From Latin 'nominalis', extant in English, et al.] noun -- a word that functions as the subject or object of a verb, as the object of a preposition or as an appositive

nunu [Reduplication of Indo-European *nu-, "now", extant in Dutch 'nu', Esperanto/Novial 'nun', with initial /n-/ in English 'now'.] present, now -- any continuous stretch of time including the moment of communication

nupeti [From Latin 'nuptiae', wedding, extant in English 'nuptials', et al.] marriage, matrimony, wedlock -- state of being husband and wife

nupile [From Arabic /mobiliia/, Russian /miebel/ and Spanish 'muebles'.] furniture -- the movable objects in a room that make it fit for living or working.

nupili [From Latin 'nobilis', extant in Arabic, Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al) and English.] noble -- someone with hereditary rank in their nation's political system

nusika [From Latin 'musica' (from Greek 'he mousike tekhne'), extant in Arabic 'musieqa', Amharic 'muziqa', Azerbajani 'musiqi', Bashkir 'muzika;', Basque 'musika', Belarus 'myzika', Bislama 'miusek', Bosnian 'muzika', Bulgarian 'muzika', Catalan 'mu'sica', Cebuano 'musika', Chechen 'musika', Danish 'musik', Dutch 'muziek', English 'music', Esperanto 'muziko', Finnish 'musiikki', French 'musique', Frisian 'muzyk', German 'Musik', Greek (Modern) 'mousiki', Hebrew 'musika', Ilocano 'musika', Ilonggo 'musika', Indonesian 'musik', Italian 'musica', Kazakh 'muzika', Kikuyu 'mu~thiki', Kyrgyz 'muzika', Latvian 'mu.zika', Lingala 'miziki', Lithuanian 'muzika', Macedonian 'muzika', Malagasy 'mozika', Malay 'muzik', Maltese 'muz.ika', Mandika 'misikoo', Norwegian 'musikk', Novial 'musike', Pangasinan 'musico', Papiamentu 'mu'siko', Persian 'musighi', Polish 'muzyka', Portuguese 'mu'sica', Pushtu 'mowsiqi', Romanian 'musica^', Russian 'muzyka', Shona 'musakazo', Somali 'muusik', Spanish 'música', Swahili 'muziki', Swedish 'musik', Tagalog 'muska', Tatar 'muzyka', TokPisin 'musik', Tongan 'musika', Turkmen 'muzika', Tajik 'muzika', Tatar 'muzika', Turkish 'mu"zik', Uighur 'muzika', Uzbek 'muziqa', Ukrainian 'muzika', Welsh 'miwsig', Yiddish 'muzik' and Zulu 'umnyuziki'. Source: Leo Moser, The Acadon System.] music -- an artistic form of auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner

nusike [From Hindi /mushik/, "mouse", with initial /m-/ in Russian /mish/ and English 'mouse'.] rodent, gnawer, gnawing animal -- relatively small gnawing animals having a single pair of constantly growing incisor teeth specialized for gnawing

nute [From Indo-European *nr-t(r)o-, extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian), Germanic (English, German, Dutch) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] north -- the direction to the left of sunrise

nutipe [From Spanish & English /motiv/, from Old French 'motif', "motive", extant in Russian. Initial /m-/ in Mandarin Chinese.] target -- a desired goal

nutu [From /mort-/ in many languages', meaning "death" or "dead", AfghanDari 'morda', Amharic 'mut', Arabic(Egyptian) 'moot', Arabic(Iraqi) 'moot', Arabic(Libyan) 'mitt', Arabic(Morrocan) 'mut', Arabic(Syrian) 'moot', Balinese 'mati', Belarus 'cmerts'', Bengali 'mrito', Bosnian 'smrt', Breton 'maro', Bulgarian 'm'rt'v', Catalan 'mort', Czech 'mrtvy'', French 'mort', Gujarati 'maran/mot', Haitian 'mouri', Hausa 'mutuwà', Hebrew 'mavet', Hindi 'murdaa', Indonesian 'mati', Italian 'morto', Javanese 'mati', Kannada 'mr.ta', Lamani 'maran.', Lamani(Gormati) 'mardaa', Latvian 'mires', Lithuanian 'mirtis', Macedonian 'mrtvi', Malagagasy 'maty', Malay 'mati', Maldivian 'maruv-', Maltese 'mewt', Modern-Assyrian 'mo-tä/mauta-', Nivkh 'mu', Oriya 'mruta', Persian 'morde', Portuguese 'morto', Punjabi 'murdaa', Pushtu 'murai', Romanian 'mort', Russian 'smert'', Sanskrit 'mr.ta', Serbian 'smrt', Sindhi 'mautu', Spanish 'muerte', Sundanese 'maot', Ukrainian 'smert'', Urdu 'murdaa' and Welsh 'marw'. Source: Leo Moser, The Acadon System.] death -- the event of dying or the departure from life

nutule [From Latin 'motor', "prime mover", extant in Arabic, Mandarin Chinese, English, Hindi, Russian, Spanish, German, Dutch, Italian, French, Esperanto and Novial.] motor, engine -- device that converts other forms of energy into mechanical energy and so imparts motion

nutuse [From Latin 'nodus', "knot".] base, node, station -- a connecting point at which paths of a system, shape or network come together

pa [Unknown origin.] {comparative marker|

pakala [From Hindi /pakar/.] hold -- the act or means of grasping something with the hands

pakale [From Arabic /bakar/, with initial /bak-/ in Spanish /baca/ 'vaca', with intial /b-/ in Russian /bik/, Hindi /bail/, English 'bovine', Italian 'bovino' and Esperanto & Novial 'bovo'.] bovine, cow, bull -- any of various members of the genus Bos of either sex

pakute [From Russian /pagod/.] weather -- physical climate, meteorological conditions

pala [From Hindi /pal/.] fruit -- the ripened reproductive body of a seed plant

palana [From Latin 'planta', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian, etc.), Germanic (English, German, Dutch), auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial), et al. (Note Hindi /vamspat/.] plant -- a vegetable life-form

palasa [From Russian /palasa/.] stripe -- marking of a different color or texture from the background

palate [From Romance 'part' (from Latin 'pars'), extant in English, Romance (Spanish, Italian) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] part -- something determined in relation to something that includes it

pale [From Hindi /pal/.] blade -- a broad, flat part of a tool that usu. has a cutting edge

palise [From Russian /palis/.] digit -- a finger or toe in human beings or corresponding part in other vertebrates; in compounds, used metaphorically for digit-like parts, such as tongues and horns

pane [From English 'banner', from Vulgar Latin 'bandaria', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian), Indonesian, et al.] flag, banner -- usu. rectangular piece of cloth of distinctive design used to convey a message or part of a message or to signify a group of people

paneka [A shift in meaning from the international form /bank/, "an institution hold money in reserve for you", ultimately from Old High German 'banc', "moneychanger's table", and extant in Arabic, Russian, Hindi, English, Spanish, German, Dutch, Italian, Esperanto and Novial. Adopted in favor of 'reserv' (from Latin), as /bank/ is much more widely used internationally.] reserve - supply kept back and saved for future use

panupu [From Malay 'bambu', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian), Germanic (English, German, Dutch) and auxilaries (Esperanto, Novial).] bamboo -- the hardy wooden stems of bamboo plants; used in construction, crafts and fishing poles

papa [Unknown origin.] fat -- plant or animal tissue containing any of various soft, solid, or semisolid organic compounds constituting the esters of glycerol and fatty acids

papu [Unknown origin.] verb -- the part of speech typically expressing existance, action or occurrence and relating the subject of the sentence to any objects

pasala [From Persian /bazar/, extant in Russian, Hindi, Arabic, Spanish, English, Italian, Esperanto, et al.] market -- place where goods are bought/sold/traded

pasatu [From Spanish /pasado/ (cognates in Italian and Esperanto) and English 'past', with initial /p-/ in Russian /proshla/ and Hindi /purv/.] past -- time that has elapsed

pata [From Russian /vada/.] water -- a clear colorless odourless tasteless liquid, H20, essential for life

patalune [From Hindi /patalun/, from French 'pantalon', attested in English ('pantaloon'), Italian, Esperanto and Novial.] pants, trousers -- a garment extending from the waist to the knee or ankle, covering each leg separately

patate [From Hindi /padart/.] object, thing -- something that is enduring in space-time

pe [From Latin 'persona', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al), Germanic (English, German, et al) and Russian, with initial /p-/ in Hindi /puruc/.] person, individual -- a human being

pelane [From Spanish 'planta'.] plant organ -- a differentiated part of a plant that performs a specific function

pele [From Hindi /pel/, "range".] interval -- quantity of time between events X and Y

pelene [Blend of Balto-Celtic-Germano-Slavic /apel/ form and Turkic /elma/ or /alma/, both meaning "apple". The /apel/ forms include Afrikaans 'appel', Bengali 'apel ', Breton 'aval', Cornish 'aval', Dutch 'appel', English 'apple', Indonesian 'apel', Latvian 'a-bols', Malay 'epel', Shona 'apuro', Thai 'aap-puhl', Tongan '`apele', Welsh 'afal', Yiddish 'epel' and Zulu '-apula'. The /alm/ forms include Azerbaijani 'alma', Bashkir 'alma', Hungarian 'alma', Kazakh 'alma', Kyrgyz 'alma', Mongol 'alim', Turkish 'elma', Turkmen 'alma', Uighur(China) 'alma' and Uzbek 'olma'. Source: Leo Moser, The Acadon System. Matches initial /p-/ in Latin 'po:mum', "fruit", in English 'pome' and in Romance "apple" forms, including Spanish 'poma', French & Esperanto & Ido 'pomo', and Novial 'pome'. Matches initial aspirated /p-/ in Mandarin 'ping2guo3' and Romany 'phabáy', "apple". The form 'palm' was ruled out due to the widespread internationality of Latin 'palma' meaning "palm tree".] pome -- a fleshy fruit, such as an apple, a pear, or a quince, with multiple seed chambers and an edible outer flesh; used in compounds to refer to any fruit with an edible outer flesh

pene [From from Indo-European *penque (*penkwe), extant in Hindi /pa~c/, Russian, Romance (from assimilated form *quenque/kwenkwe in Latin, Spanish, Italian, English 'penta-', et al) and Germanic (from *pempe in English, German, Dutch).] five -- the cardinal number that is the sum of four and one

penesa [From English 'pencil', borrowed into Hindi.] stylus -- a pointed tool for writing, drawing or engraving

penete [From Latin 'vendere', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian), English 'vending', auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] sale -- the general activity of selling

pepale [From Spanish 'prepar-'.] readiness -- state of being ready or prepared for use in action

pepe [Unknown origin.] creation -- something made, constructed or created (but not as a synonym of "caused")

pesipitasi [From Spanish 'precipitación'.] precipitation -- the falling to earth of rain or snow or hail or sleet or fog

pete [From Indo-European *ped-, with initial /p-/ in Hindi /pamv/; *ped- survives in English 'pedestrian', Germanic *fot- (English foot) and Romance /p-d-/ (Spanish, Italian, Esperanto, Novial).] foot -- the pedal extremity of the inferior limb in vertebrates

pi [Unknown origin.] {postposition}

piku [From Mandarin Chinese /pigu/.] buttock, cheek -- either of the buttocks

pikuta [From Latin 'pictura', extant in Spanish and English.] picture, image -- a visual representation, of an object or scene or person, produced on a surface

pila [From Russian /pir/, with initial /p-/ in Hindi /par/ and Latin 'pluma', extant in Spanish, English, Esperanto and Novial.] feather -- the light horny structures forming the external covering of birds

pile [From Hindi /pil-/.] yellow -- the quality or state of the chromatic color resembling the hue of sunflowers or lemons

pina [From Mandarin Chinese /pinmyan/ and Latin 'planus', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian), English and Novial.] plane -- an unbounded two-dimensional shape

pine [From Arabic /bin/, with initial /b-/ in English 'building'.] building, edifice -- structure with walls and a roof and stands more or less permanently in one place

pinise [From Latin 'finis', "end", extant in English, Spanish, Italian, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] ending, conclusion, completion -- the last part of a process or object considered in its entirety

pipi [Unknown origin.] rule, regulation -- a principle or condition that customarily governs behaviour

pisuke [From Russian /visok/.] high object -- something relatively distant from the ground [scalar]

pitakesulina [From the Kalisise alphabet /ptkslniaeu/.] alphabet -- a system of writing tending to represent individual sounds rather than representing individual syllables or individual meanings (e.g., hieroglyhs, Chinese characters)

pitaku [From Hindi /pritaku/.] separation -- the condition of being spaced apart

pitina [From Russian /pyitna/.] mark -- visible indication made on a surface

pu [From Chinese /po/.] diagonal, incline -- something arranged obliquely or slanted

pukuse [From Latin 'focus', "hearth, fire", extant in Romance (Spanish 'fuego', Italian 'fuoco', Portuguese 'fogo', Catalan & Romanian 'foc' and French 'feu') and English (in 'focus', 'fuel' and 'foyer'), strengthened by /f-/ starting German, English, Esperanto and Novial forms. Source: Raymond Brown.] fire -- process of combustion

pulape [From Hindi /purab/.] east -- the direction of sunrise

pulase [From Russian /volas/.] hair -- any of the cylindrical keratinized and often pigmented filaments characteristically growing from the epidermis of a mammal and covering the body or parts of it

pule [From Russian & Hindi /bur/, with initial /b-/ in English, German, Dutch, Esperanto and Novial forms.] brown -- an orange color of low brightness and saturation

pulefe [From Spanish /polv/, with cognates in Russian /pil/ and Latin 'pulvis' (extant in Italian, Esperanto, Novial, English 'pulverize').] dust -- fine powdery material such as dry earth or pollen that can be blown into the air

pulitiku [From Greek 'politikos', extant in Romance (Latin, Spanish, Italian, French), Germanic (English, German, Dutch) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] politics -- social relations involving strife, pettiness, image, authority and power

puluni [From Russian /poln/ with initial /p-/ in Hindi /purn/.] full container -- containing as much or as many as is possible or normal

puna [From Latin 'forma', extant in Russian, Germanic (English, German, Dutch, et al), Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] form, shape -- the characteristic two-dimensional surface configuration of a thing; an outline or a contour

pupa [From Italian 'bomba', extant in Russian, Hindi, Spanish, French, Germanic (English, German, Dutch, et al) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] bomb -- an explosive device fused to ignite under specific conditions

pupi [Truncation of 'pupilike'.] people group, public -- a body of people sharing some common interest

pupilike [From Latin 'publicus', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian, French, et al), borrowed in to Russian, Germanic (English, Dutch) and auxilaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al.)] public good, common good -- the good of a community

pupu [Unknown origin.] file -- the basic unit of a computer's nonmemory storage system

pusata [From Vulgar Latin *posta, "station", extant in Russian, English, German, Dutch, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] mail -- the system whereby messages are transmitted via the post office

puse [From Persian /pors/, "ask", similar to Russian /vapros/, "question" with initial /pr-/ in Hindi /prashn/, Spanish 'pregunta' and English 'probe'.] question, query -- an instance of interrogation

pusene [From Russian /pozn/.] something late/tardy - something not adhering to a correct, usual or expected time

pusi [Blend of Hindi /upiog/ (with initial /p-/ in Russian /primin/) and Vulgar Latin /usare/, extant in English, Spanish, French, et al.] use, usage -- the application or employment of something for a purpose ("skilled in the use of a spear")

pusiti [From Latin 'positio', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian), English, auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] position -- the way in which something is placed; when used of a human or animal body, refers to posture and arrangement of body parts (sitting, standing, lying down)

putuse [From Russian /budush/, with initial /b-/ in Hindi /bavish/.] future -- the time yet to come

sa [From Chinese /sha/.] difference, different object -- something dissimilar from something else [scalar]

sakala [Blend of Arabic /shakl/ and Hindi /akar/.] form, shape -- the characteristic three-dimensional configuration or abstraction of a thing [contrast with "form", the two-dimensional shape]

sake [From Greek 'sakkos' (from Phoenician), extant in Russian, Germanic (German, English, Dutch, et al), Latin, Greek, Welsh, Polish, Albanian, et al, and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] sack -- a large bag (typically of strong, coarse material) for holding objects in bulk

salana [From Russian /starana/.] direction -- orientation, a line leading to a place or point

salane [From Hindi /saran/.] decay, rotten object -- something with has undergone decomposition of organic matter caused by bacterial or fungal action [scalar]

salape [From Arabic /salaf/, "old".] old object -- something that has existed for a relatively long time [scalar]

salata [Shift in meaning from Romance /salada/, "salad, dish of vegetables", as this is much more international than any root for vegetable, being extant in Chine

Conlang Profiles at © 1996-2005 Jeffrey Henning.

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