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Kali-sise (Pitakesulina)


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Lessons   Advanced
Before beginning, please review the pronunciation system of Kali-sise.  

The following lessons consist of three sections each:
The Root Words section introduces six root words for you to memorize.
Grammar introduces a key grammatical concept for you to learn and develop your own sentences demonstrating.
Compounds provide examples of words derived from all the roots covered up to and including this lesson.  You don't need to memorize these, but you should carefully review them and see if you can recognize the meaning from the roots.

Rough Draft -- still being written and double- and triple-checked.  Contact me if you would like to be notified when the lessons are complete and the language design is final.

Lesson Index

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Lesson 1

Root Words

kune [From Latin 'contra-', extant in English, et al.] Opposite extreme, polar opposite -- the direct contrast.
lete [From Romance -el, -et, -elet, extant in English -let ('booklet'), -ette, et al.] Little -- a small amount or duration {diminutive}.
nale [Latin 'mare', extant in Russian /mor/, Spanish /mar/, English 'maritime', German 'Meer', Italian 'mare', Esperanto 'maro' and Novial 'mare'.] Ocean, sea -- a very large body of salt water.
pe [From Latin 'persona', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al), Germanic (English, German, et al) and Russian, with initial /p-/ in Hindi /puruc/.] Person, individual -- a human being.
sili [From Hindi /shiryi/, with initial /shi-/ in Mandarin Chinese.] Bird -- warm-blooded egg-laying vertebrates of the class Aves characterized by feathers and forelimbs modified as wings.
tuna [From Romance augmentative -on-, extant in English 'canton', 'carton', 'fronton', 'panettone', 'spontoon', 'teston', et al.] Much -- a great amount or extent {augmentative}.


If no verb is present, the verb "to be" is assumed. A verb takes any number of case phrases, each specifying a detail describing the action of the verb. Each case phrase can consist of a noun followed by a case particle. The most important case particle is the nominative particle, pi, which specifies the subject of the sentence.

Sili pi.
bird NOM
A bird exists.

Nale pi.
sea NOM
A sea exists.

Pe pi.
person NOM
A person exists.


kune-kune n. Same extreme -- similar to something, rather than in contrast to it.
kune-lete n. Low end -- the low end of a scale; for instance, absolute zero for temperature.
kune-tuna n. High end -- the high end of a scale; for instance, the hottest degree temperature imaginable for the temperature scale.
nale-kune n. Desert.
nale-lete n. Bay.
nale-sili n. Sea bird.
pe-lete n. Child -- a person who has not yet come of age.
pe-lete-lete n. Child -- under 12.
pe-tuna n. Giant.
sili-lete n. Warbler, etc. -- general word for small songbirds.
sili-tuna n. Emu, Australian bird like the ostrich but slightly smaller. Unlike the ostrich, the emu is easily domesticated and ranched, esp. in the US and Australia.

Lesson 2

Root Words

kasese [From Russian /kashestv/. Initial /k-/ reinforced by Spanish /kalidad/.] Abstraction -- concept without any specific instance; quality or property exhibited by something.
liku [From Latin 'liquidus', extant in Spanish, English, Italian, Esperanto and Novial.] Liquid -- a fluid substance having no fixed shape but a defined volume.
nasini [From Russian /mashin/.] Vehicle -- a conveyance that transports people or objects.
pitakesulina [From the Kalisise alphabet /ptkslniaeu/.] Alphabet -- a system of writing tending to represent individual sounds rather than representing individual syllables or individual meanings (e.g., hieroglyhs, Chinese characters).
sinata [From Hindi /shimta/, with initial /sh-/ in Mandarin Chinese and in Russian (in /shipsi/, "tongs").] Tool, utensil, implement -- an apparatus for practical use (esp. in a household).
tile [From Russian /tyel/.] Body part -- any part of an organism such as an organ or extremity.


Two nominative phrases in a sentence without a verb are equivalent to "A -- is a --." Like Mandarin Chinese, Kali-sise lacks articles (the, a or an).

Nasini pi sinata pi.
vehicle NOM tool NOM
A vehicle is a tool.

Pitakesulina pi sinata pi.
alphabet NOM tool NOM
An alphabet is a tool.


kasese-kasese n. Metalevel -- an abstraction of an abstraction.
kasese-kune n. Concrete evidence, data.
kasese-tuna n. Theory.
kune-kasese n. Contrast, direct contrast -- the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared.
liku-kasese n. Liquidity -- the fact or state of being a liquid.
liku-kune n. Solid -- a firm, rigid substance.
liku-lete n. Moisture; dampness.
nale-liku n. Saltwater.
nale-nasini n. Oceanliner.
nale-nasini-tuna n. Oceanliner.
nale-pitakesulina n. System of flag symbols used for ship-to-ship or ship-to-shore communication.
nale-tile n. Fin.
nasini-liku n. Vehicle liquid -- gasoline, oil, brake fluid, steering fluid or any other liquid crucial to the operation of a vehicle, especially a motor vehicle.
pitakesulina-kasese n. Writing system.
pitakesulina-kune n. Mathematical notation.
pitakesulina-lete n. Consonant-only alphabet -- an alphabet like that of ancient Hebrew that doesn't mark vowels at all or that, like Tolkien's Elvish scripts, marks vowels as supersigns over the consonants.
pitakesulina-nasini n. School bus.
pitakesulina-pe n. Abecedarian.
pitakesulina-pitakesulina-kune n. Writing system.
pitakesulina-tuna n. Syllabary.
pitakesulina-tuna-kasese n. Case -- whether a letter is capital or lower-case.
tile-lete n. Tissue.
tile-lete-pe n. Dwarf, midget.
tile-tuna n. Body.
tile-tuna-pe n. Giant.

Lesson 3

Root Words

kesinu [From Mandarin Chinese /keciue/.] Science -- any domain of knowledge accumulated by systematic study and organised by general principles.
lepeti [From Late Latin 'reptile', extant in English, Spanish, Italian, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] Reptile, reptilian -- any cold-blooded vertebrate of the class Reptilia including tortoises, turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles and extinct forms.
nuni [Unknown origin.] Absence -- a deficiency or lack of something.
pusata [From Vulgar Latin *posta, "station", extant in Russian, English, German, Dutch, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] Mail -- the system whereby messages are transmitted via the post office.
sunu [From Italian /suono/.] Sound -- the particular auditory effect produced by a given cause.
tu [From Indo-European *duwo.] Two -- the cardinal number that is the sum of one and one or a numeral representing such a number.


Any noun can precede another noun, in which case it treated as an adjective. In fact, in general in Kali-sise, modifiers precede the words that they modify; for instance, you can think of a noun as modifying the case particle it precedes.

Tuna sunu pi.
much sound NOM
There is a big sound.

Lete sili pi.
little bird NOM
There is a little bird.

When a number proceeds a noun, it should be interpreted as indicating the ordinal position of that noun (e.g., one > first, two > second, three > third, etc.).

Tu lepeti pi.
two reptile NOM
There is a second reptile.

Tu nasini pi nuni pi.
two vehicle NOM absence NOM.
The second vehicle is missing.


kasese-kesinu n. Theoretical physics.
kesinu-kesinu n. Epistemology.
kesinu-nasini n. Space probe.
lepeti-kesinu n. Herpetology.
lepeti-tile adj. Reptilian -- having a body form, face and/or gestures reminiscent of a snake or other reptile.
lete-kesinu n. Particle physics.
liku-kesinu n. Fluid dynamics.
liku-sunu n. Plink -- the sound produced by falling amounts of liquid.
nale-kesinu n. Oceanology, oceanography.
nale-lepeti n. Sea snake.
nale-nuni n. Low tide.
nale-sunu n. Roar of the sea.
nasini-kesinu n. Navigation.
nuni-kasese n. Emptiness.
nuni-kune n. Presence.
nuni-lete n. Insufficiency -- being a little short of; not having quite enough.
nuni-tuna n. Total lack of, being devoid of.
pitakesulina-kesinu n. Orthography.
pitakesulina-nuni n. Preliteracy -- the fact (of a civilization) of having no written language.
pusata-lete n. Flyer -- a brochure or pamphlet sent without an envelope, being folded once or twice and addressed, and typically fastened shut with a staple or sticker.
pusata-nasini n. Mail truck -- a conveyance that transports mail.
pusata-sili n. Carrier pigeon -- a homing pigeon, especially one trained to carry messages.
pusata-sunu n. Dictation --.
sili-kesinu n. Ornithology.
sili-sunu-sinata n. Flute.
sunu-kesinu n. Acoustics.
sunu-nasini n. Sound truck -- truck having loudspeakers, usually on top, for broadcasting political or commercial messages.
sunu-nuni n. Silence -- absence of sound.
sunu-pusata n. Voicemail --.
sunu-sinata n. Musical instrument -- a device used for creating musical sounds.
sunu-tile n. Ear -- the sense organ for hearing and equilibrium.
sunu-tuna n. Noise, loud sound.
tile-kesinu n. Anatomy.
tu-kune n. Negative two, -2.
tu-pe n. Two-year old -- a person who has experienced two but not three years since birth.
tu-sunu n. Stereo, stereo system, stereophonic system -- reproducer in which two microphones feed two or more loudspeakers to give a three-dimensional effect to the sound.
tu-tuna n. Twenty.
tu-tuna-tu n. 22.
tu-tu-pe n. 22-year old -- a person who has experienced 22 but not 23 years since birth.

Lesson 4

Root Words

kalane [From Arabic /kalam/.] Communication unit -- a collection of words, oral or written or otherwise represented, conveying a central idea.
lele [Unknown origin.] Male -- a person or animal that belongs to the sex that cannot have babies.
nine [From Hindi /min/ and English 'minnow'.] Fish -- any of various mostly cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates usu. having scales and breathing through gills.
pata [From Russian /vada/.] Water -- a clear colorless odourless tasteless liquid, H20, essential for life.
sata [From Hindi /zhantu/ and Russian /zhivotna/, both from Indo-European *gwei- and therefore cognate to Latin vita_, Greek _bio-_ and English _quick_).] Animal, animate being, beast, brute, creature, fauna -- a living organism characterized by voluntary movement.
ti [From Indo-European *treyes.] Three -- a cardinal number that is the sum of one and one and one or a numeral representing such a number.


Another case particle is li, which locates the action of the verb.

Ti nine pi pata li.
three fish NOM water LOC
The third fish is in the water.

Lepeti pi nale li.
reptile NOM sea LOC
Reptiles are in the sea.

Tuna pe pi nasini li.
big person NOM vehicle LOC
A big person is in the vehicle.


kalane-kalane-kune n. Oxymoron.
kalane-kasese n. Communication.
kalane-kesinu n. Information theory.
kalane-lete n. Symbol -- a symbol in a communication unit, such as the dot or the dash in Morse Code.
lele-kesinu n. Andrology.
lele-lele n. Masculinity.
lele-tile n. Male anatomy.
liku-kalane n. Liquid message -- message that doesn't last long.
liku-kune-pata n. Ice -- a solid, crystalline form of water, which floats on liquid water.
nale-kalane n. Lighthouse signal.
nale-lele n. Merman.
nale-nine n. Saltwater fish.
nale-pata n. Seawater.
nale-sata n. Marine life.
nine-kesinu n. Ichthyolog.
nine-lele n. Fertilizing in water.
nine-lepeti n. Ichthyosaur.
nine-lete n. Small fish.
nine-nasini n. Fishing boat.
nine-sili n. Kingfisher.
nine-sunu-sinata n. Celesta.
nine-tuna n. Assisting fish or fish behavior.
nuni-kalane n. Notification of absense.
pata-kesinu n. Hydrology.
pata-nasini n. Water truck.
pata-nuni n. Dehydration.
pata-nuni-kasese n. Dryness -- the state of lacking water.
pata-sili n. Waterfowl.
pe-lele n. Man -- male person.
pe-lete-lele n. Little boy -- a human male who has not yet reached adolescence.
pitakesulina-kalane n. Letter.
pusata-kalane n. Letter, missive -- a written message addressed to a person or organization.
pusata-kalane-lete n. Note -- a short written message addressed to a person or organization.
pusata-kalane-tuna n. Epistle -- a letter, especially a long, formal letter.
pusata-lele n. Mailman -- a male letter carrier (c.f. postnicmas).
sata-kalane n. Animal sounds.
sata-kasese n. Animality.
sata-kesinu n. Zoology.
sata-lete n. Organism.
sata-nuni n. Extinction.
sili-kalane n. Bird song.
ti-kasese n. Threeness, as distinct from three; the absolute value of three.
ti-kune n. Negative three, -3.
tile-kalane-kune n. Numbness.
tile-lele n. Male genitals.
ti-lete n. Two.
ti-nasini n. Triplane.
ti-pe n. Three-year old -- a person who has experienced three but not four years since birth.
ti-sunu-sinata n. Triangle (musical instrument).
ti-ti-pe n. 33-year old -- a person who has experienced 33 but not 34 years since birth.
ti-tuna n. 30.
ti-tu-pe n. 32-year old -- a person who has experienced 32 but not 33 years since birth.
tu-kalane n. Message and reply as a unit.
tu-ti-pe n. 23-year old -- a person who has experienced 23 but not 24 years since birth.
tu-tuna-ti n. 23.

Lesson 5

Root Words

kiki [Unknown origin.] Measure, measurement -- magnitude as determined by calculation.
lune [From Hindi /arun/, with initial /r-/ in English 'red' & 'rouge', Spanish 'rojo', German 'rot', Dutch 'rood', Italian 'rosso', Esperanto 'rug^a', Novial 'red', et al.] Red -- the quality or state of the chromatic color resembling the hue of blood.
nu [From Indo-European *oynos.] One -- the smallest natural number or a numeral representing such a number.
palana [From Latin 'planta', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian, etc.), Germanic (English, German, Dutch), auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial), et al. (Note Hindi /vamspat/.] Plant -- a vegetable life-form.
silu [From Arabic /sifr/, extant in Hindi /sifar/, Spanish 'cero', Italian 'zero', English 'zero', Novial 'sero'.] Zero -- a mathematical element that when added to another number yields the same number.
tesu [From Indo-European *deiwos, extant in Hindi 'dev' and in Latin 'devus', "god" (itself extant in English 'divine', Spanish 'dios', Italian 'dio' & 'divinita', Esperanto 'dio', Novial 'dee').] God, deity, divinity -- any supernatural being worshipped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force.


The verb particle se can convert any noun that precedes it into a verb.

Pe pi kiki se.
person NOM measurement VB
A person measured.

Sili pi sunu se.
bird NOM sound VB
A bird made a sound.

Lele pi nasini se.
male NOM vehicle VB
A male drove a vehicle.


kiki-kalane n. A measurement.
kiki-kesinu n. Metrology.
kiki-sinata n. Meter, gauge -- a device for measuring.
kiki-tu n. Measure twice, cut once -- admonition in carpentry to double-check measurements before cutting, since a cut is permanent but a measurement isn't.
liku-kiki n. Liquid measure -- the measurement and description of mass or volume of liquids.
liku-kune-kiki n. Dry measure -- the measurement and description of mass or volume of solids.
lune-lete n. Pink.
lune-liku n. Blood.
lune-nine n. Red snapper.
lune-sili n. Cardinal (Cardinalis).
nale-kiki n. Nautical mile.
nale-palana n. Marine flora.
nu-kune n. Negative one, -1.
nu-kune-kalane n. Farewell -- expression of goodwill at parting.
nu-liku n. Solution -- a homogeneous mixture of two or more liquids.
nuni-nu n. Interpolation -- calculation of the value of a function between the values already known (mathematics).
nu-nu n. Eleven (exactly).
nu-nu-nu-pe n. 111-year old -- a person who has experienced 111 but not 112 years since birth.
nu-nu-pe n. 11-year old -- a person who has experienced 11 but not 12 years since birth.
nu-nu-silu-pe n. 110-year old -- a person who has experienced 110 but not 111 years since birth.
nu-pe n. One-year old -- a person who has experienced one but not two years since birth.
nu-pitakesulina adj. Monoalphabetic -- describing a language that uses only one system of letters to write.
nu-silu n. Ten (exactly).
nu-silu-nu-pe n. 101-year old -- a person who has experienced 101 but not 102 years since birth.
nu-silu-pe n. Ten-year old -- a person who has experienced ten but not 11 years since birth.
nu-silu-silu-pe n. 100-year old -- a person who has experienced 100 but not 101 years since birth.
nu-silu-ti-pe n. 103-year old -- a person who has experienced 103 but not 104 years since birth.
nu-silu-tu-pe n. 102-year old -- a person who has experienced 102 but not 103 years since birth.
nu-sunu n. Mono, monophonic, single-channel -- designating sound transmission or recording or reproduction over a single channel (electronics).
nu-ti-pe n. 13-year old -- a person who has experienced 13 but not 14 years since birth.
nu-tu-pe n. 12-year old -- a person who has experienced 12 but not 13 years since birth.
palana-kesinu n. Floristics.
palana-liku n. Sap -- the fluid found in vascular plants.
pata-kiki-sinata n. Hydrometer.
pusata-kiki n. Weighing for postage -- determining the weight of a letter or package in order to levy the appropriate fee for mailing it.
sata-palana n. Flora and fauna.
silu-pe n. Baby -- a person who has experienced less than one year since birth.
sunu-kiki n. Tone, pitch -- property of sound that varies with the frequency of vibration.
sunu-kiki-sinata n. Audiometer.
tesu-kalane n. Message from God/gods.
tesu-kesinu n. Theology.
tesu-kune n. Devil, demon -- one of the evil spirits of traditional Jewish and Christian belief.
tesu-liku n. Ambrosia.
tesu-nasini n. Chariot.
tesu-pe n. Holy person, priest.
tesu-pitakesulina n. Devanagari.
tesu-tile n. Soul, spirit.
tesu-tuna n. Supreme deity (c.f. devcapt).
tile-kiki n. Vital statistics; "measurements".
tile-kiki-kesinu n. Anthropometry -- a pseudoscientific method of determining intelligence, temperament and other psychological traits by measuring and comparing phrenological bumps and other physical attributes.
ti-nu-pe n. 31-year old -- a person who has experienced 31 but not 32 years since birth.
ti-silu-pe n. 30-year old -- a person who has experienced 30 but not 31 years since birth.
tuna-kiki n. Mole (mol).
tuna-kiki-kasese n. Amount of substance.
tu-nu-pe n. 21-year old -- a person who has experienced 21 but not 22 years since birth.
tu-silu n. Twenty, 20.
tu-silu-pe n. 20-year old -- a person who has experienced 20 but not 21 years since birth.

Lesson 6

Root Words

kelu [From Indo-European *kwetwores.] Four -- the cardinal number that is the sum of three and one.
lanase [From Germanic *langaz, "long", extant in English, German, Dutch, Italian, Esperanto, Novial, with initial /l-/ in 'largo' and Hindi /lamb/.] Long object -- something with relatively large length (a measure of the gap between two spaces) [scalar].
natinu [From Old French 'nation' (from Latin 'natio'), extant in Russian, Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al), Germanic (English, German, Dutch, et al) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] Nation, country, state, political entity -- a politically organised body of people under a single government.
pine [From Arabic /bin/, with initial /b-/ in English 'building'.] Building, edifice -- structure with walls and a roof and stands more or less permanently in one place.
sisi [Unknown origin.] Movement -- the act of changing one's location from one place to another.
tepuse [Latin 'tempus', extant in English ('temporal'), Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] Time -- the continuum of experience in which events pass from the future through the present to the past, or -- when used in a compound -- a period or event on this continuum.


The case particle pi, introduced as the nominative, is the agent or actor of the action described by the verb. The particle ke is the accusative particle, specifying the patient of the verb (that which is acted upon). The accusative case phrase typically follows the verb.

Pe pi kiki se lepeti ke.
person NOM measurement VB reptile ACC
A person measured a reptile.

Nu lele pi sisi se ti nine ke.
one male NOM movement VB three fish ACC
One male moved the third fish.


kelu-kelu-pe n. 44-year old -- a person who has experienced 44 but not 45 years since birth.
kelu-kune n. Negative four, -4.
kelu-nu-pe n. 41-year old -- a person who has experienced 41 but not 42 years since birth.
kelu-pe n. Four-year old -- a person who has experienced four but not five years since birth.
kelu-silu-pe n. 40-year old -- a person who has experienced 40 but not 41 years since birth.
kelu-ti-pe n. 43-year old -- a person who has experienced 43 but not 44 years since birth.
kelu-tuna n. 40.
kelu-tu-pe n. 42-year old -- a person who has experienced 42 but not 43 years since birth.
lanase-kasese n. Length -- a measure of the gap between two spaces [scalar.
lanase-kiki n. Meter (m).
lanase-kiki-kasese n. Length.
lanase-kiki-lete n. Centimeter (cm).
lanase-kiki-tuna n. Kilometer (km) {use langmerton for an asteroid ten kilometers long; use telmer for an asteroid ten kilometers away}.
lanase-kune n. Short object -- something with relatively short length (a measure of the gap between two spaces) [scalar.
lanase-lepeti n. Snake.
lanase-lepeti-sunu-sinata n. Serpent (musical instrument).
lanase-nasini n. Truck.
lanase-nine n. Eel.
nale-pine n. Lighthouse.
nale-sisi n. Current.
nale-sisi-pe n. Seafarer -- one who travels by sea.
nasini-pine n. Garage.
natinu-kalane n. National character.
natinu-kasese n. Fatherland.
natinu-kesinu n. Diplomacy.
natinu-kune n. Ethnos.
natinu-lete n. Region, state (in USA), province (in Canada), shire (in England), Land (in Germany), republic (in former USSR and former Yugoslavia).
natinu-sunu n. National anthem.
natinu-tuna n. Empire.
nu-kelu-pe n. 14-year old -- a person who has experienced 14 but not 15 years since birth.
nuni-natinu n. Government-in-exile -- the overthrown ruling body of a country that has established a base in another country in hopes of liberating its homeland.
nuni-tepuse n. Hiatus, respite, reprieve, abatement, suspension -- an interruption in the intensity or amount of something.
nu-silu-kelu-pe n. 104-year old -- a person who has experienced 104 but not 105 years since birth.
palana-pine n. Greenhouse -- an inside room in which plants are kept and grown.
pata-sisi-tile n. Swim-bladder.
pe-lete-tepuse n. Childhood -- the time of one's life up to adolescence.
pine-kalane n. Signals for heating &c in a building.
pine-kasese n. Construction.
pine-kesinu n. Architecture.
pine-kune n. Tent.
pine-lete n. Outbuilding, shed, shack.
pine-nasini n. Crane.
pine-nuni-pe n. Homeless person.
pine-tuna n. Tower -- a structure taller than its diameter; can stand alone or attached to another building.
pusata-pine n. Post office, local post office -- a local branch of the post office.
sata-nuni-tepuse n. The Azoic.
sisi-kalane n. Quantum step.
sisi-kasese n. Move -- a player's turn to move a piece or take some other permitted action.
sisi-kesinu n. Kinematics.
sisi-kiki-kasese n. Displacement.
sisi-nuni adj. Sedentary.
sisi-nuni-sata n. Sponge.
sisi-tile n. Muscle.
tepuse-kiki n. Second (s).
tepuse-kiki-kasese n. Time.
tepuse-kiki-sinata n. Chronometer, clock, watch -- a device for measuring time.
tepuse-kiki-sinata-sili n. Cuckoo (Cuculidae).
tepuse-nasini n. Time machine.
tepuse-tile n. Biological clock.
tesu-pine n. Church, synagogue, temple -- a building for worship.
ti-kelu-pe n. 34-year old -- a person who has experienced 34 but not 35 years since birth.
tile-tepuse n. Body time -- the time of the day according to the sleeping patterns to which a person's body is accustomed from living in a certain time zone.
tu-kelu-pe n. 24-year old -- a person who has experienced 24 but not 25 years since birth.
tu-tepuse n. Twice -- 2 times [adv.
tu-tuna-kelu n. 24.

Lesson 7

Root Words

kapina [From Mandarin Chinese /kapyan/ with initial /k/ in Greek 'khartes', extant in Russian, Hindi, Germanic (English, German, Dutch), Romance (Latin, Spanish), auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial), .] Card -- thin cardboard, usually rectangular.
lupete [From German 'Luft', extant in English borrowed term 'Luftwaffe'. Close in form to Dutch 'lucht'.] Air -- a mixture of gases (esp. oxygen) required for breathing, the region above the ground.
nasiku [From Russian /nasikoma/.] Insect -- small air-breathing arthropod of the class Insecta, with adult stage having three pairs of legs.
pete [From Indo-European *ped-, with initial /p-/ in Hindi /pamv/; *ped- survives in English 'pedestrian', Germanic *fot- (English foot) and Romance /p-d-/ (Spanish, Italian, Esperanto, Novial).] Foot -- the pedal extremity of the inferior limb in vertebrates.
sutale [From Sanskrit 'sutram', "thread", and Latin 'sutus', past participle of 'suere', "to sew" (extant in English 'suture'), all ultimately from Indo-European *syu-, "to bind, to sew". (Inspired by Acadon 'sutra'.)] Thread, filament -- something shaped like a long thin line, with its width almost insignificant compared to its length.
telule [From Latin 'terror', extant in Spanish, English, Italian, et al.] Fear -- an emotion experienced in anticipation of some specific pain or danger.


When se is used to convert a noun into a verb, it creates an active-voiced verb. Typically English verbs need to be split into parts: "flies" = "moves through air", "swims" = "moves through water", etc.

Lepeti pi telule se pe ke.
reptile NOM fear VB person ACC
A reptile frightens a person.

Sili pi sisi se lupete li.
bird NOM movement VB air LOC
A bird moves through the air.

Nine pi sisi se pata li.
bird NOM movement VB water LOC
A fish moves through the water.


kapina-kalane n. Greeting card.
kapina-kesinu n. Cartomancy -- the use and examination of cards for psychic purposes.
kapina-kiki-sinata n. Cardiometer.
kapina-pine n. A tower made entirely of playing cards.
kapina-tuna n. Particle board.
kelu-pete n. Tetrapod -- vertebrate animal with four legs or leg-like limbs (as in flippers of seals).
kelu-pete-nasini n. Quadcycle.
kiki-nasiku n. Inchworm, measuring worm moth (Geometridae).
lele-telule n. Androphobia.
lepeti-telule n. Herpetophobia.
lupete-kesinu n. Pneumatics.
lupete-lepeti n. Flying dragon (Draco).
lupete-nasini n. Airplane.
lupete-nasini-tuna n. Space ship -- a vehicle designed to travel to or in outer space.
lupete-pusata n. Airmail, airpost -- a system of conveying mail by aircraft (c.f. luftpostsist).
lupete-pusata-kalane n. Airmail -- letters and packages that are transported by aircraft.
lupete-sisi n. Fly, glide -- to move through the air..
lupete-sisi-nine n. Flying fish.
lupete-tile-nuni-nasiku n. Apterygote -- one of the primitive wingless orders of insects.
nale-lupete n. Sea air -- the fresh air over the Ocean and slightly inland.
nale-lupete-nasini n. Seaplane, hydroplane -- aircraft with floats for landing on or taking off from water.
nale-pete n. Webbed foot.
nale-telule n. Thalassophobia.
nasiku-kesinu n. Entomology.
nasiku-pe n. Fairy -- a small flying person with insect-like wings..
nasiku-pitakesulina n. An artistic system of lettering involving the juxtaposition of close-up photographs of moth and butterfly wings including natural designs that happen to resemble a letter of the English alphabet.
nasiku-sili n. Flycatcher (Tyrannidae).
nasiku-sinata n. Titmouse, tit -- small insectivorous birds.
nasiku-telule n. Entomophobia.
nasini-kapina n. Driver's license.
nine-telule n. Ichthyophobia.
nu-kelu-pete n. Isopod crustacean -- crustaceans of the order Isopoda, such as sow bugs and gribbles, characterized by a flat body with seven pairs of legs.
nuni-kapina n. Pink slip -- a piece of paper signed and filled out to excuse a student's absence beforehand.
nu-pete n. Gastropod -- mollusks of the class Gastropoda, characteristically having an abdominal muscular foot for movement.
nu-pete-nasini n. Unicycle.
nu-silu-pete n. Decapod crustacean.
nu-sutale adj. Single-threaded -- no side branch.
pete-kesinu n. Podiatry.
pete-lanase-kiki n. Foot.
pete-nasini n. Bicycle.
pete-nuni-lepeti n. Snake.
pitakesulina-kapina n. One of the tall dividers in a card catalogue that has a letter marked on it to signify the beginning of the "A", section, the "B" sections, etc..
pusata-kapina n. Postcard -- a simple stamped card mailable at a cheaper price than a letter.
sata-telule n. Zoophobia.
silu-pete n. Snake (c.f. sirpedrept).
silu-pete-lepeti n. Legless lizard.
silu-pete-nine n. Loach (family Cobitidae).
silu-pete-sata n. Worm.
silu-pete-tile n. Appendix -- the vestigial digestive organ in humans.
sunu-kapina n. Sound card -- a card installed in some older computers.
sutale-palana n. Vine -- a thin, long often epiphytic plant, such as that on which grapes grow.
sutale-sili n. Tailorbird (Orthotomus).
sutale-tuna n. Ribbon.
sutale-tuna-nine n. Oarfish (family Regalecidae).
telule-kune n. Braveness.
telule-lete n. Caution.
telule-telule n. 'fear of fear itself'.
telule-tuna n. Terror.
tesu-nasiku n. Mantis, mantid -- predacious long-bodied large-eyed insect of warm regions; rests with forelimbs raised as in prayer.
tile-kapina n. Identification forcibly kept on one part of a person's body, usually for student identification purposes . . . you know, like how in those real bad high schools that have metal detectors and require clear backpacks, they make all their students keep a card with their student number tied around their neck? Yeah, one of those..
ti-pete n. Tripod -- a three-legged stand for a camera..
ti-pete-nasini n. Tricycle.
tu-pete n. Biped -- vertebrate animal with two feet.
tu-pete-nasini n. Bicycle.

Lesson 8

Root Words

kali [From Arabic /kalim/.] Word -- a unit of language that native speakers can identify.
luka [From Vulgar Latin *rocca, extant in English & Spanish /rok/.] Rock, stone -- lump of hard consolidated mineral matter.
nana [Unknown origin.] Electricity -- a form of energy associated with moving electrons and protons.
pene [From from Indo-European *penque (*penkwe), extant in Hindi /pa~c/, Russian, Romance (from assimilated form *quenque/kwenkwe in Latin, Spanish, Italian, English 'penta-', et al) and Germanic (from *pempe in English, German, Dutch).] Five -- the cardinal number that is the sum of four and one.
sise [From Latin 'systema', extant in Russian, Spanish, English, et al.] System -- a group of interrelated but independent elements comprising a unified whole.
tunu [Truncation of Greek 'atomos', "atom", extant in Latin, Russian, Spanish, English, German, Dutch, Italian, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] Atom -- smallest unit of an element, consisting of a dense positively charged nucleus surrounded by a system of electrons.


The first-person pronoun is le. It can be translated "I, me, you, we, us".

Le pi luka pi.
1ST NOM rock NOM
I am a rock. We are a rock.

Lepeti pi telule se le ke.
reptile NOM fear VB 1ST ACC
A reptile frightens me/us.

Le pi nasini se tu le ke nale li.
1ST NOM vehicle VB two 1ST ACC sea LOC.
I drove the second of us to the sea.


kali-kesinu n. Lexicology [vocsistsint would be linguistics.
kali-kune n. Subtext.
kali-nasini n. Voice-controlled vehicle.
kali-pitakesulina n. Kanji -- the Japanese characters that represent an entire word.
kali-sili n. Parrot (Psittacidae).
kali-sili-nine n. Parrotfish (family Scaridae).
kali-sise n. Language -- a systematic means of communicating by the use of sounds or conventional symbols.
kali-sise-lete n. Dialect.
kali-telule n. Verbophobia.
kelu-pene-pe n. 45-year old -- a person who has experienced 45 but not 46 years since birth.
lele-nana n. Positive electric charge.
luka-kasese n. Stoner.
luka-kesinu n. Geology.
luka-kune n. Water.
luka-lete n. Pebble.
luka-liku n. Lava -- molten rock from the interior of the earth.
luka-pitakesulina n. Runes -- a system of characters used in Ancient and Medieval Europe with simple strokes that could easily be carved into stone.
luka-sili n. Rockfowl (Picathartidae).
luka-sunu-sinata n. Lithophone.
luka-tuna n. Boulder.
lupete-pusata-sise n. Airmail, airpost -- a system of conveying mail by aircraft.
nale-luka n. Isolated heap of rocks on which a lighthouse stands.
nana-kasese n. Shock -- not necessarily caused by electricity, but could be something "electrifying" in a metamorphic sense..
nana-kesinu n. Electromagnetism.
nana-kune n. Magnetism (there is no obvious polar opposite for "electricity". If there is no better suggestion, I will suggest defining "violt" as "magnetism", a physical phenomena closely coupled with "electricity").
nana-kune-kesinu n. Magnetism (the science).
nana-lete n. Electronic (to name "electronic" things like "electronic switch" whenever a distinction from "electrical things" is needed. The rationale is that "electronic" things are usually smaller in size and use less electricity) NOTE: For the "electronic" in "e-mail" and "e-commerce", do not use "vaolt", use "ciber".
nana-lete-kesinu n. Science of electronics.
nana-nana-kune-kesinu n. Electromagnetism.
nana-nasini n. Electric car.
nana-nine n. Electric eel.
nana-palana-liku n. Amber -- a hardened form of sap capable of producing electricity.
nana-pitakesulina n. Same as gasbac, c.f..
nana-pusata n. Telegram.
nana-silu n. Electrical ground (zero potential).
nana-sisi n. Electric current.
nana-sisi-kiki n. Ampere (A).
nana-sisi-kiki-kasese n. Electric current (amperage).
nana-sunu-sinata n. Electronic musical instrument.
nana-sutale n. Electric wire.
nana-tuna n. Power supply system -- generation and distribution of electricity on a large scale (note: "volt" should be used to name things in between electronic and power supply or where the distinction is not important. E.g. voltdoarg, vaoltdoarg, vuoltdoarg.
nana-tuna-sutale n. Power line/cable.
nana-tunu-lete n. Electron.
nu-pene-pe n. 15-year old -- a person who has experienced 15 but not 16 years since birth.
nu-pitakesulina-kali n. Acronym -- a word formed from the initial letters of a multi-word name.
nu-silu-pene-pe n. 105-year old -- a person who has experienced 105 but not 106 years since birth.
nu-tesu-sise n. Monotheism -- belief in a single God.
pene-kelu-pe n. 54-year old -- a person who has experienced 54 but not 55 years since birth.
pene-kesinu n. Pentology -- study of the occult.
pene-kune n. Negative five, -5.
pene-nu-pe n. 51-year old -- a person who has experienced 51 but not 52 years since birth.
pene-pe n. Five-year old -- a person who has experienced five but not six years since birth.
pene-pene-pe n. 55-year old -- a person who has experienced 55 but not 56 years since birth.
pene-pete n. Starfish -- a marine invertebrate with (usually) five appendages..
pene-silu-pe n. 50-year old -- a person who has experienced 50 but not 51 years since birth.
pene-ti-pe n. 53-year old -- a person who has experienced 53 but not 54 years since birth.
pene-tuna n. 50.
pene-tu-pe n. 52-year old -- a person who has experienced 52 but not 53 years since birth.
pitakesulina-kali n. Initialism -- an abbreviation (such as CIA, MTV, LSD, DJ or CD) pronounced by sounding the name of each constituent letter.
pitakesulina-tunu n. One of those tiny pixels in light-up signs that when lit up with adjacent bactom in a certain pattern form a letter.
pusata-sise n. Mail, post, postal service -- the system whereby messages are transmitted via the post office.
sise-kesinu n. Systems analysis.
tesu-kune-tunu n. Sulphur -- an abundant tasteless odourless multivalent nonmetallic element.
tesu-sise n. Religion, faith, religious belief -- belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny.
tile-luka n. Gallstone.
tile-nana n. Biologically produced electricity, as that of electric eels.
tile-sise n. Body -- the entire physical structure of an organism, especially an animal or human being.
ti-pene-pe n. 35-year old -- a person who has experienced 35 but not 36 years since birth.
ti-silu-tunu n. Zinc, Zn, atomic number 30 -- a bluish-white lustrous metallic element; brittle at ordinary temperatures but malleable when heated; used in a wide variety of alloys and in galvanizing iron; it occurs as zinc sulphide in zinc blende.
tu-kali-sise-kalane n. Translation -- a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in the first language.
tu-kelu-tunu n. Chromium -- element of atomic number 24.
tunu-kasese n. Particle in contrast to waves; particle in general, including atoms, molecules, subatomic particles, mass points and tiny things..
tunu-kesinu n. Nucleonics.
tunu-lete n. Sub-atomic particle.
tunu-lete-kesinu n. Subnuclear physics.
tunu-nasini n. Nuclear-powered submarine.
tunu-tuna n. Molecule.
tu-nu-tunu n. Scandium -- element of atomic number 21.
tunu-tunu-lete n. Proton.
tu-pene-pe n. 25-year old -- a person who has experienced 25 but not 26 years since birth.
tu-pene-tunu n. Manganese -- element of atomic number 25.
tu-silu-tunu n. Calcium -- element of atomic number 20.
tu-ti-tunu n. Vanadium -- element of atomic number 23.
tu-tuna-pene n. 25.
tu-tunu n. Helium -- element of atomic number 2.
tu-tu-tunu n. Titanium -- element of atomic number 22.

Lesson 9

Root Words

kunane [Blend of Spanish /kom/ and Old French 'mangier', extant in English ('manger'), Italian, Esperanto and Novial, with initial /k-/ in Hindi /kha/.] Eating -- the act of taking in solid food.
lapati [From Latin 'lavatio', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian), English and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] Washing -- the process of cleansing using water and/or chemicals.
nutu [From /mort-/ in many languages', meaning "death" or "dead", AfghanDari 'morda', Amharic 'mut', Arabic(Egyptian) 'moot', Arabic(Iraqi) 'moot', Arabic(Libyan) 'mitt', Arabic(Morrocan) 'mut', Arabic(Syrian) 'moot', Balinese 'mati', Belarus 'cmerts'', Bengali 'mrito', Bosnian 'smrt', Breton 'maro', Bulgarian 'm'rt'v', Catalan 'mort', Czech 'mrtvy'', French 'mort', Gujarati 'maran/mot', Haitian 'mouri', Hausa 'mutuwà', Hebrew 'mavet', Hindi 'murdaa', Indonesian 'mati', Italian 'morto', Javanese 'mati', Kannada 'mr.ta', Lamani 'maran.', Lamani(Gormati) 'mardaa', Latvian 'mires', Lithuanian 'mirtis', Macedonian 'mrtvi', Malagagasy 'maty', Malay 'mati', Maldivian 'maruv-', Maltese 'mewt', Modern-Assyrian 'mo-tä/mauta-', Nivkh 'mu', Oriya 'mruta', Persian 'morde', Portuguese 'morto', Punjabi 'murdaa', Pushtu 'murai', Romanian 'mort', Russian 'smert'', Sanskrit 'mr.ta', Serbian 'smrt', Sindhi 'mautu', Spanish 'muerte', Sundanese 'maot', Ukrainian 'smert'', Urdu 'murdaa' and Welsh 'marw'. Source: Leo Moser, The Acadon System.] Death -- the event of dying or the departure from life.
pasatu [From Spanish /pasado/ (cognates in Italian and Esperanto) and English 'past', with initial /p-/ in Russian /proshla/ and Hindi /purv/.] Past -- time that has elapse.
sese [From Indo-European *s(w)eks, in Arabic, Germanic (English, German, Dutch, et al), Romance (Spanish, Italian), Russian & auxilaries (Esperanto, Novial).] Six -- the cardinal number that is the sum of five and one.
tine [From Hindi /din/ and Russian /dien/, with initial /d-/ in Spanish /dia/, English 'day', Dutch 'dag', Indo-European *dye-, Latin 'dies'.] Day -- time for a planet to make a complete rotation on its axis.


Like Mandarin Chinese, Kali-sise verbs are not marked to indicate time. Time is usually indicated by context, but you can use the particle li to locate the action of a verb in time as well as space. To set a narrative in the past, use the set phrase pasatu li in the first sentence; you won't need to repeat it in subsequent sentences.

Le pi lapati se pasatu li.
1ST NOM washing VB past LOC
I washed.

Lepeti pi kunane se sili ke tine li.
reptile NOM eating VB bird ACC day LOC.
A reptile ate the bird in a day.

Nutu se nasiku ke pasatu li.
death VB insect ACC past LOC
The insect died.


kelu-sese-pe n. 46-year old -- a person who has experienced 46 but not 47 years since birth.
kunane-kalane n. Recipe.
kunane-kasese n. Material having to do with eating or with food.
kunane-kasese-tile n. Stomach -- the part of the body central to the digestive system.
kunane-kesinu n. Gastrology.
kunane-kune n. Vomiting.
kunane-kune-sili n. Jaeger.
kunane-lete n. Nibbling - on a sandwich, a cookie, on a girlfriend's ear..
kunane-liku n. Beverage -- a liquid prepared with the intent of being drunk.
kunane-nuni n. The act of fasting.
kunane-pine n. Restaurant -- a place where food is served to the public.
kunane-pine-lete n. Fast-food restaurant -- restaurants serving a comparatively limited menu of standardized food for consumption on the premises or elsewhere; in the U.S., often have drive-thru windows.
kunane-tuna n. Feasting, banqueting -- eating an elaborate meal (often accompanied by entertainment).
kunane-tuna-kasese n. Gluttony.
lapati-kali n. Euphemism -- an inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive.
lapati-liku n. Cleansing agent, cleanser, cleaner -- a liquid detergent or chemical agent used in cleaning something.
lapati-sunu-sinata n. Washboard.
liku-kunane n. Drinking.
lupete-nutu n. Suffocation, asphyxiation -- the condition of being deprived of oxygen (as by having breathing stopped), which in humans can make the skin look blueish.
nale-kunane n. Feeding frenzy -- a feeding frenzy in the water.
nale-lapati n. Gradual erosion of beach rocks by waves.
nale-nutu n. Drowning.
nasiku-kunane adj. Insectivorous.
nu-sese-pe n. 16-year old -- a person who has experienced 16 but not 17 years since birth.
nu-silu-sese-pe n. 106-year old -- a person who has experienced 106 but not 107 years since birth.
nutu-kalane n. Epitaph.
nutu-kapina n. Death certificate.
nutu-kasese n. Mortality.
nutu-kesinu n. Thanatology.
nutu-kune n. Birth.
nutu-kune-kesinu n. Biology.
nutu-kune-liku n. Elixir.
nutu-kune-lupete n. Spirit; soul.
nutu-kune-pe n. Undead.
nutu-kune-pitakesulina n. The system of guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine coding in DNA.
nutu-lete n. Coma, comatoseness.
nutu-lupete n. Ghost -- the nonmatter that represents the continued spirit of a dead person.
nutu-lupete-liku n. Ectoplasm -- the supposed slime from which ghosts are composed.
nutu-nasini n. Hearse.
nutu-nuni n. Immortal.
nutu-pe-tesu-lete n. Ghost.
nutu-pine n. Pyramid -- a tomb made out of a structure of towing blocks, with all sides triangular.
nutu-pine-pitakesulina n. Hieroglyphics -- a writing system using picture symbols; used in ancient Egypt.
nutu-pusata-kalane n. Dead letter -- a letter that can neither be delivered nor returned.
nutu-sili n. Vulture.
nutu-telule n. Thanatophobia.
nutu-tesu-lete n. Undead.
nutu-tuna-pusata-sili n. Passenger pigeon -- an extinct migratory bird (Ectopistes migratorius) abundant in eastern North America until the last half of the 19th century.
palana-kunane adj. Herbivorous -- eating plants rather than meat.
palana-kunane-pe n. Vegetarian -- a person who abstains from eating meat.
pasatu-kalane n. Archive.
pasatu-kesinu n. History.
pasatu-tile n. Vestigial organ -- an organ (as the appendix) that serves no modern purpose and whose existence is a throwback to earlier evolution.
pene-sese-pe n. 56-year old -- a person who has experienced 56 but not 57 years since birth.
pusata-tine n. Postmark date -- the date a letter or package was processed for shipment by a postal service; typically recorded as part of the postmark over the stamp.
sata-lete-kunane adj. Filter-feeding.
sese-kelu-pe n. 64-year old -- a person who has experienced 64 but not 65 years since birth.
sese-kune n. Negative six, -6.
sese-nasini n. Six-cylinder motor vehicle.
sese-nu-pe n. 61-year old -- a person who has experienced 61 but not 62 years since birth.
sese-pe n. Six-year old -- a person who has experienced six but not seven years since birth.
sese-pene-pe n. 65-year old -- a person who has experienced 65 but not 66 years since birth.
sese-pete n. Insect -- small air-breathing arthropod of the class Insecta, with adult stage having three pairs of legs (c.f. sisp).
sese-sese-pe n. 66-year old -- a person who has experienced 66 but not 67 years since birth.
sese-silu-pe n. 70-year old -- a person who has experienced 70 but not 71 years since birth.
sese-ti-pe n. 63-year old -- a person who has experienced 63 but not 64 years since birth.
sese-tuna n. 60.
sese-tu-pe n. 62-year old -- a person who has experienced 62 but not 63 years since birth.
silu-pete-kunane-sili n. Robin.
tesu-tine n. Sabbath -- a day of rest and worship.
tile-nutu n. Physical as opposed to spiritual death.
tile-tine n. Circadian day.
tine-kalane n. Daily entry in a day book.
tine-kesinu n. Chronology.
tine-kune n. Night.
tine-kune-nasiku n. Moth.
tine-kune-sili n. Nightingale (Luscinia).
tine-nasini n. Commuter car.
tine-tepuse n. Time of day -- clock time.
ti-sese-pe n. 36-year old -- a person who has experienced 36 but not 37 years since birth.
ti-sese-pene-tine n. Year.
tu-sese-pe n. 26-year old -- a person who has experienced 26 but not 27 years since birth.
tu-sese-tunu n. Iron -- element of atomic number 26.
tu-tuna-sese n. 26.

Lesson 10

Root Words

kaneke [From Latin 'cancer', "crab, constellation Cancer", (extant in English, et al), with initial /k-/ in Hindi /kand/ and Spanish 'casco'.] Shell -- the material that forms the hard outer covering of many animals.
luna [Latin 'luna', extant in Russian, Romance (Spanish, Italian, et al), English ('lunar') and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] Moon, Moon -- any natural satellite of a planet, typically the natural satellite of the Earth.
nusike [From Hindi /mushik/, "mouse", with initial /m-/ in Russian /mish/ and English 'mouse'.] Rodent, gnawer, gnawing animal -- relatively small gnawing animals having a single pair of constantly growing incisor teeth specialized for gnawing.
palate [From Romance 'part' (from Latin 'pars'), extant in English, Romance (Spanish, Italian) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] Part -- something determined in relation to something that includes it.
sete [From Indo-European *septm, extant in Arabic, Russian, Hindi, Spanish, Latin, Greek, German, Dutch, Italian, Esperanto, Novial, et al.] Seven -- the cardinal number that is the sum of six and one.
tupe [From English /top/, with initial /t-/ in Spanish /tesh/.] Top -- the uppermost part, point, surface or end.


One case phrase, the genitive, indicated by ta, can proceed and modify other case phrases, indicating something that is possessed.

Le pi lapati se tupe ta palana ke.
1ST NOM washing VB top GEN plant ACC
I washed the top of the plant.

Nusike pi kunane se le ta sili ke.
rodent NOM eating VB 1ST GEN bird ACC
A rodent ate my bird.

Lele pi lapati se palate ta nasini ke.
male NOM washing VB part GEN vehicle ACC
A male washed part of the vehicle.

The genitive is also used to count items.

Luna ke nuni se sete ta tine li.
Moon ACC absence seven GEN days LOC
The moon was absent for seven days.

Lepeti pi kunane se sese ta sili ke tine li.
reptile NOM eating VB six GEN bird ACC day LOC.
A reptile ate six birds in a day.

Sili pi nutu se pene ta nusike ke.
bird NOM death VB five GEN rodents ACC
A bird killed five rodents.


kaneke-kalane n. Ocean sounds from a shell.
kaneke-kasese n. Armor -- tough more-or-less rigid protective covering, used in combat.
kaneke-kesinu n. Conchology.
kaneke-kune n. Skin, tegument, cutis -- a natural protective covering of the body.
kaneke-kune-palate n. Scale -- one unit of skin on the body of a fish, reptile, suit oaf rmor, etc..
kaneke-lepeti n. Turtle, tortoise -- a reptile of the order Chelonia, with an external shell..
kaneke-lete n. Toenail, fingernail -- horny plate covering and protecting part of the dorsal surface of the digits.
kaneke-nasiku n. Beetle (order Coleoptera).
kaneke-nasini n. Tank.
kaneke-nine n. Shellfish.
kaneke-nuni adj. Shell-less.
kaneke-nuni-nu-pete n. Slug -- terrestrial gastropod mollusks of the genus Limax and related genera, typically lacking a shell or having an incomplete shell.
kaneke-nuni-sutale-sata n. Slug.
kaneke-nu-pete n. Snail -- gastropod mollusks having a spirally coiled shell, broad retractile foot and distinct head, typically with eyestalks.
kaneke-sata n. Mollusk -- invertebrate animal of the phylum Mollusca, many of which have a hard external shell of calcium carbonate..
kaneke-sata-sili n. Oystercatcher (Haematopus).
kaneke-sunu-sinata n. Conch shell (as a musical instrument).
kaneke-tuna n. Armor.
kelu-sete-pe n. 47-year old -- a person who has experienced 47 but not 48 years since birth.
lanase-pete-nusike n. Jerboa (Dipodidae).
luka-nusike n. Gundi (Ctenodactylidae).
luna-kasese n. Satellite (any object that orbits another).
luna-kesinu n. Selenology.
luna-kune n. (an object that does not orbit another, star?).
luna-lete n. Satellite (a man-made object that orbits around the earth).
luna-nale n. Lunar mare.
luna-nasini n. Lunar lander.
luna-nine n. Moonfish (family Menidae).
luna-sili n. Owl.
luna-tuna n. Full moon.
lupete-nusike n. Flying squirrel.
nale-kaneke n. Seashell.
nale-kaneke-lepeti n. Sea turtle.
nale-nusike n. Sea otter.
nale-nusike-lete n. Sea mouse.
nale-tupe-kune n. Sea floor.
nasiku-kaneke n. Elytra -- the pair of hard wing-shaped flaps over the wings of beetles.
nasiku-nusike n. Grasshopper mouse (Onychomys).
nu-sete-pe n. 17-year old -- a person who has experienced 17 but not 18 years since birth.
nusike-kune n. Cat.
nusike-lepeti n. Rat snake (Elaphe).
nusike-lete n. Mouse -- a relatively small rodent, such as the house mouse _Mus musculus_ or the deer mouse _Peromyscus maniculatus_..
nusike-pitakesulina n. Any of the various writing systems used by sapient Mizarian mice to record their languages.
nusike-sili n. Mousebird -- a bird of the family Coliidae, with a long, narrow tail..
nusike-telule n. Musophobia.
nusike-tuna n. Rat -- a large rodent of the genus Rattus or similar species..
nusike-tuna-tuna n. Capybaras.
nu-silu-sete-pe n. 107-year old -- a person who has experienced 107 but not 108 years since birth.
nutu-kune-kaneke-nasiku n. Scarab (family Scarabaeidae).
palate-kune n. Piece.
palate-nasini n. Railway car.
pata-nusike n. Nutria, coypu (Myocastor).
pene-sete-pe n. 57-year old -- a person who has experienced 57 but not 58 years since birth.
pine-tupe-kune n. Floor.
pitakesulina-palate n. Letter -- a written symbol representing a speech sound and being part of an alphabet.
pusata-kaneke n. Envelope, packaging -- an envelope or box used to contain goods that are being mailed.
sese-sete-pe n. 67-year old -- a person who has experienced 67 but not 68 years since birth.
sete-kelu-pe n. 74-year old -- a person who has experienced 74 but not 75 years since birth.
sete-kune n. Negative seven, -7.
sete-nu-pe n. 71-year old -- a person who has experienced 71 but not 72 years since birth.
sete-pe n. Seven-year old -- a person who has experienced seven but not eight years since birth.
sete-pene-pe n. 75-year old -- a person who has experienced 75 but not 76 years since birth.
sete-sese-pe n. 76-year old -- a person who has experienced 76 but not 77 years since birth.
sete-sete-pe n. 77-year old -- a person who has experienced 77 but not 78 years since birth.
sete-ti-pe n. 73-year old -- a person who has experienced 73 but not 74 years since birth.
sete-tuna n. 70.
sete-tunu-liku n. Liquid nitrogen -- a supercool liquid state of nitrogen.
sete-tu-pe n. 72-year old -- a person who has experienced 72 but not 73 years since birth.
tepuse-palate n. Era -- a section in time in which a certain trend or regime predominates.
ti-sete-pe n. 37-year old -- a person who has experienced 37 but not 38 years since birth.
tunu-lete-palate n. Quark.
tupe-kune n. Bottom -- the lowermost part, etc..
tupe-kune-pine n. Foundation -- lowest supporting part of a structure.
tupe-kune-tepuse v. Until -- clause conjunction.
tupe-tunu-lete-palate n. Top-quark.
tu-sete-pe n. 27-year old -- a person who has experienced 27 but not 28 years since birth.
tu-sete-tunu n. Cobalt -- element of atomic number 27.
tu-tuna-sete n. 27.

Lesson 11

Root Words

kani [Shortened form of Dublex 'canisa', "shirt".] Garment -- an article of clothing.
lunene [From Latin 'lumen', from Indo-European *leuk-, extant in Spanish, Italian, Germanic (English, German, Dutch), Esperanto and Novial.] Light -- visible electro-magnetic radiation.
nelu [From Italian 'nero', from Latin 'niger', extant in Romance (Spanish, Portuguese, Esperanto, Novial, et al) and English 'Negro'.] Black, blackness -- the quality or state of the achromatic color of the least lightness.
pile [From Hindi /pil-/.] Yellow -- the quality or state of the chromatic color resembling the hue of sunflowers or lemons.
pulase [From Russian /volas/.] Hair -- any of the cylindrical keratinized and often pigmented filaments characteristically growing from the epidermis of a mammal and covering the body or parts of it.
sesete [From Russian /sistra/, "sister", and Romance /-esse/ (English -ess), with intial /s-/ occuring in words meaning "sister" in Mandarin Chinese and Hindi.] Female -- a person or animal that belongs to the sex that has babies.
teke [From Indo-European *dekm, "ten", extant in Russian, Romance (Latin 'decem') Germanic (English, German, Dutch) and auxilaries (Esperanto, Novial). Mnemonic: decimal.] Ten to the power of -- forms large number words, as in 'desduv' ("ten to the power of two, 100"), 'dester' (1,000) and 'dessis' (1,000,000); when used to describe how many of something is taken as an approximation.


The second-person pronoun is ne, "you".

Ne pi lapati se pile kani ke.
2ND NOM washing VB yellow garment ACC
You washed the yellow garment.

Le pi lapati se ne ta pile kani ke.
I NOM washing VB 2ND GEN yellow garment ACC
I washed your yellow garment.

Pe pi kani se ne ta nelu pulase kani ke.
Person NOM garment VB 2ND GEN black hair garment ACC
A person wore your black-haired garment.


kaneke-pulase n. Horn.
kaneke-pulase-lepeti n. Horned lizard (Phrynosoma).
kaneke-pulase-sili-tuna n. Cassowary (Casuariidae).
kani-kalane n. Cleaning bill.
kani-kasese n. Fashion -- the prevailing style of dress.
kani-kesinu n. Couture -- the specialties dealt with by fashion designers.
kani-kune n. Birthday suit -- nakedness.
kani-lete n. Underclothes.
kani-nasiku n. Clothes moth (Tineidae).
kani-nasini n. Laundry truck.
kani-nuni n. Nudity.
kani-palana n. Any species of plant with economic use for making clothing fibers.
kani-tuna n. Overcoat.
lele-sesete n. Gender.
lele-sesete-nuni n. Androgynous.
lunene-kasese n. Brightness -- quality of being luminous.
lunene-kesinu n. Photology.
lunene-kiki-sinata n. Photometer.
lunene-kune n. Darkness.
lunene-kune-kaneke-nasiku n. Darkling beetle (family Tenebrionidae).
lunene-kune-lepeti n. Night lizard (Xantusiidae).
lunene-nasiku n. Firefly -- a kind of beetle that emits brief pulses of light..
lunene-nasini n. Faster-than-light spacecraft.
lunene-nine n. Goldfish.
lunene-nuni n. Dark, darkness -- absence of light or illumination.
lunene-nuni-palate n. Aphotic zone.
lunene-telule n. Photophobia.
lunene-tile n. Eye.
lunene-tunu-lete n. Photon -- the particle view point of light, mediating particle of electromagnetic force.
nale-lunene n. Sea fire -- bioluminescence cast by certain marine life.
nale-sesete n. Mermaid.
nelu-kune-lune n. Pink -- a light shade of red.
nelu-kune-lune-sili n. Flamingo (Phoenicopteridae).
nelu-kune-pata-sili n. Swan -- stately heavy-bodied aquatic bird with very long neck and usu. white plumage as an adult.
nelu-lete n. Gray.
nelu-lete-nine n. Grayling.
nelu-nine n. Blackfish.
nelu-nusike n. Black rat (Rattus rattus).
nelu-sili n. Icterid blackbirds (like the red-wing).
nine-sesete n. Birthing in water by egg.
nu-kani n. One-piece clothing.
nu-sesete n. First woman, Eve, Lilith, Pandora -- the prototypical first human female in faiths, traditions and religions.
pe-lete-sesete n. Little girl -- a human female who has not yet reached adolescence.
pe-sesete n. Woman or person who seems feminine regardless of gender.
pile-lune n. Orange -- a color intermediate between red and yellow.
pile-sili n. Canary.
pulase-kasese n. Cilia - hairlike appendages found on species of single-celled organisms, as well as on eukaryotic cells that permit movement, or filtering of substances..
pulase-nasiku n. Louse (superorder Phthiraptera).
pulase-nuni n. Alopecia.
pulase-silu-pete n. Polychaete -- one of a class of annelid worms with sensitive hairs along the sides of their bodies.
pulase-tile n. Follicle.
pulase-tupe-palana n. Thistle -- any of various unrelated plant species with fuzz at the top.
pusata-sesete n. Mail lady -- a female letter carrier (c.f. postnicses)..
sesete-kasese n. Femininity.
sesete-kesinu n. Inscrutable.
sesete-nana n. Negative electric charge.
sesete-telule n. Gynophobia.
sesete-tile n. Female anatomy.
teke-kasese n. A decade; ten years.
teke-kelu n. Ten thousand -- the cardinal number that is the product of ten and one thousand.
teke-kelu-pe n. Forty-something -- adult from the age of 40 to 49.
teke-kesinu n. Algebra.
teke-kune n. Ten to the negative power of.
teke-lete n. Ten.
teke-nasini n. Caravan.
teke-nu-pe n. Preteen, teenager -- children from the age of 10 to 19.
teke-nu-tu n. Trillion -- a number as represented as a one followed by 12 zeroes (18 in England and Germany).
teke-pene n. 100000.
teke-pene-pe n. Quinquagenarian -- adult from the age of 50 to 59.
teke-pete n. Decapod crustacean -- aquatic arthropods of the class Crustacea that have five pairs of jointed limbs, therefore including lobsters, crabs and shrimps but excluding barnacles.
teke-sese n. Million.
teke-sese-pe n. Sexagenarian -- adult from the age of 60 to 69.
teke-sete-pe n. Septuagenarian -- adult from the age of 70 to 79.
teke-silu-pe n. Children under the age of 10.
teke-teke-pe n. Centenarian -- adults 100 years old and older.
teke-ti n. Thousand.
teke-ti-lanase-kiki n. Kilometer.
teke-ti-pe n. Thirty-something -- adult from the age of 30 to 39.
teke-tu n. Hundred approximately -- ten 10s.
teke-tuna n. One hundred.
teke-tu-pe n. Twenty-something -- adult from the age of 20 to 29.
teke-tu-tine n. Year.
telule-kani n. Military uniform.
ti-kani n. Three-piece clothing.
tile-kani n. A piece of clothing meant to fit to a region of the human figure very tightly.
tile-lunene n. Bioluminescence -- the natural glowing light produced by an organism's body.
tile-pile n. Jaundice.
tile-sesete n. Female genitals.
tu-kani n. Two-piece clothing.

Lesson 12

Root Words

kita [From Arabic /gida/.] Food -- any substance that can be metabolised by an organism to give energy or build tissue.
lili [Unknown origin.] World -- a part of the universe that can be considered separately; often used for a planet.
nane [From Late Latin 'mammalis', "of the breast", extant in English 'mammal', Spanish 'mamífero', Italian 'mammifero', with initial /m-/ strengthened by Russian /mlikapitayuc/.] Mammal -- any warm-blooded vertebrate having the skin more or less covered with hair; young are born alive, except for the small subclass of monotremes, and nourished with milk.
pesipitasi [From Spanish 'precipitación'.] Precipitation -- the falling to earth of rain or snow or hail or sleet or fog.
sikulu [From Latin 'circulus', extant in English 'circle', Spanish 'circulo' and with cognates in Dutch, Italian, Esperanto, Novial, itself ultimately from Greek 'kirkos', extant in Russian /krukl/.] Circle -- a plane curve generated by one point moving at a constant distance from a fixed point.
tupuse [From Latin 'tubus', extant in Spanish, English, Russian, et al.] Tube -- a long hollow object used to hold and conduct liquids or gases.


When a pronoun precedes a noun, it is interpeted as an demonstrative: "this" and "that" (think of them as meaning "this thing near me" and "that thing near you").

Le lili pi sikulu pi.
1ST world NOM circle NOM
This world is a circle.

Ne tupuse pi kita pi.
2ND tube NOM food NOM
That tube is food.

Pesipitasi se le nane ke te nane.
Precipitation VB 1ST mammal ACC 2ND mammal ACC
It's raining this mammal and that mammal.


kaneke-nane n. Armadillo -- a mammal of the family Dasypodidae, with a shell-like protective covering..
kita-kalane n. Menu.
kita-kani n. Garnish -- something (such as parsley) added to a dish for flavor or decoration.
kita-kapina n. Food stamp -- a card periodically issued to welfare recipients representing just enough money to buy food for the month.
kita-kesinu n. Gastronomy.
kita-nuni adj. Starving.
kita-nusike n. Guinea pig, cavy (Cavia).
kita-sise n. Food chain -- a hierarchy of predators, prey and decomposers.
kita-sise-tupe-kune n. Plankton -- the creatures forming the bottom of the food chain.
kita-tepuse n. Mealtime.
lanase-lepeti-kunane-nane n. Mongoose (Herpestidae).
liku-kune-pesipitasi n. Hail -- precipitation of solid balls of ice.
liku-pesipitasi n. Rain -- liquid precipitation.
lili-kalane n. Atlas, book of maps, map collection -- a collection of maps in book form.
lili-kali-sise n. International auxiliary language, IAL -- a language intended to be learnt as the common second language of the world.
lili-kesinu n. Ecology.
lili-nasini n. Earth satellite vehicle, ESV.
lili-telule n. Pantophobia.
luka-pesipitasi n. Hail -- precipitation in the form of pellets of ice and hard snow.
lupete-nane n. Bat.
lupete-nane-nine n. Batfish (family Ogcocephalidae).
lupete-sisi-lete-nane n. Flying lemur (Cynocephalidae).
nale-kalane-nane n. Dolphin (Delphinidae).
nale-kita n. Seafood.
nale-lili n. Aquarium -- place for the public exhibition of live aquatic animals and plants.
nale-nane n. Ocean-dwelling mammal (dolphin, sea otter, sea lion, manatee).
nale-nane-lete n. Porpoise -- any of several small gregarious cetacean mammals having a blunt snout and many teeth.
nale-nane-tuna n. Whale (larger cetaceans).
nale-tupuse n. Tube worm -- a small tubular invertebrate living in colonies on the ocean floor.
nale-tupuse-sata n. Sea cucumber.
nana-sikulu-kasese n. Not an electric circuit itself but an actual loop or a "mesh" in circuit analysis, one circuit may contain multiple meshs, and an open circuit may contain none.
nane-kesinu n. Mammalogy.
nane-tile n. Breast, bosom -- either of two soft fleshy milk-secreting glandular organs on the chest of a woman, or analogous organs on other female mammals.
nasiku-nane n. Shrew (Soricidae).
nine-kita-silu-pete n. Tubifex worm -- a type of annelid worm (genus Tubifex) used to make fish food.
pata-kita n. Soup.
pata-kita-sili n. Edible-nest swiftlet (Collocalia fuciphaga).
pata-nasiku-nane n. Otter-shrew (Potamogale).
pata-pesipitasi n. Rain.
pata-sikulu-kasese n. Water cycle.
pata-tupuse n. Pipe.
pata-tupuse-sise n. Sewer.
pesipitasi-kalane n. Weather forecast.
pesipitasi-kasese n. Trouble, worries, problems.
pesipitasi-kesinu n. Meteorology.
pesipitasi-kiki-sinata n. Hyetometer.
pesipitasi-kune n. Evaporation, transpiration -- drying out.
pesipitasi-lete n. Airbound precipitation -- precipitation that doesn't hit the ground, such as mist or fog.
pesipitasi-luka n. Stalactite or stalagmite -- a cylinder of calcium carbonate projecting upward from the floor or downward from the ceiling of a limestone cave.
pesipitasi-nasini n. Snowcat.
pesipitasi-tuna n. Blizzard.
pitakesulina-pata-kita n. Alphabet soup.
pitakesulina-tupuse n. A tube used to make neon lettering.
sikulu-kapina n. The Zener card that has the circle on the face.
sikulu-kasese n. Loop, circuit, cycle -- any path, real or abstract, that goes back to its point of origin.
sikulu-kasese-tepuse n. Period (of a cycle).
sikulu-kiki-sinata n. Protractor.
sikulu-lepeti n. Turtle.
sikulu-nasini n. Helicopter.
sikulu-palate n. Slice, piece -- a share of something, especially a circular something ("a slice of pie").
sikulu-sinata n. Drill.
sikulu-sisi v. Spin; gyrate -- to move around in a circular pattern.
sikulu-sisi-kaneke-nasiku n. Whirligig beetle (family Gyrinidae).
sikulu-sunu-sinata n. Cymbal.
sili-nane n. Platypus, duckbill, duckbilled platypus, duck-billed platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus -- small densely furred aquatic monotreme of Australia and Tasmania having a broad bill and tail and webbed feet; only species in the family Ornithorhynchidae.
silu-sikulu-kasese adj. Acyclic.
sunu-tupuse-tile n. Vocal cord.
tesu-kita n. Ambrosia -- the food of the gods; mortals who ate it became immortal (Greek and Roman mythology).
tupe-kune-pesipitasi-luka n. Stalagmite -- a cylinder of calcium carbonate projecting upward from the floor of a limestone cave.
tupe-pesipitasi-luka n. Stalactite -- a cylinder of calcium carbonate projecting downward from the ceiling of a limestone cave.
tupuse-nasini n. Subway.
tupuse-nuni n. Tubeless, tubeless tire -- pneumatic tire not needing an inner tube to be airtight.
tupuse-nuni-palana n. Bryophyte -- any of a division of plants that lack a vascular tube, including mosses, liverworts and hornworts.
tupuse-nuni-palana-sata n. Bryozoan; "moss-animal" (phylum Bryozoa).
tupuse-pusata n. Mailng tube -- a cardboard tube for mailing posters and large pictures.
tupuse-sunu-sinata n. Pipe organ.
tupuse-tuna n. Pipe; conduit -- a tube for the passage of water (c.f. vattub).

Lesson 13

Root Words

katale [From Arabic /kadar/] Dirt, ground -- the loose soft material that makes up a large part of the surface of land.
lalu [Unknown origin.] Iron, Fe -- a heavy ductile magnetic metallic element.
nenu [Unknown origin.] Egg -- animal reproductive body consisting of an ovum or embryo together with nutritive and protective envelopes; esp. the thin-shelled reproductive body laid by e.g. female birds.
pale [From Hindi /pal/.] Blade -- a broad, flat part of a tool that usu. has a cutting edge.
salape [From Arabic /salaf/, "old".] Old object -- something that has existed for a relatively long time [scalar].
tenete [From Indo-European *dent-, recognizably extant in Hindi, Romance (Latin, Spanish, Italian), English ('dental'), auxilaries (Esperanto, Novial).] Tooth -- hard bonelike structures in the jaws of vertebrates; used for biting and chewing or for attack and defense.


Kali-sise doesn't have an explicit third-person pronoun (e.g., "he, him, she, her, it, they, them"). When the case markers aren't proceeded by noun phrases, they are often translated with third-person pronouns. An empty noun phrase sometimes has the same referent (antecedent) as the previous instance of that case phrase in the same sentence.

Pi pale se ne ta pulase ke.
NOM blade VB 2ND GEN hair ACC
They cut your hair.

Pi salape pi.
NOM old-object NOM
They're old.

Nane pi tenete se ke.
mammal NOM teeth VB ACC
A mammal bit them.


kapina-pale n. Letter opener, paperknife -- dull knife used to cut open the envelopes in which letters are mailed or to slit uncut pages of books.
katale-kaneke n. Bunker, dugout -- a fortification of earth; mostly or entirely below ground.
katale-kaneke-lepeti n. Tortoise (Testudinidae).
katale-kesinu n. Pedology.
katale-nane n. Mole (Talpidae).
katale-nasiku n. Ant.
katale-nasiku-kunane-nasiku n. Ant-lion (family Myrmeleontidae).
katale-nasiku-nane n. Anteater (Myrmecophagidae).
katale-nasiku-sili n. Antbird (Thamnophilidae).
katale-nasini n. Dirt bike.
katale-nine n. Mudskipper (family Periophthalmidae).
katale-nuni n. Sterility.
katale-nusike n. Mole-rat.
katale-sili n. Pheasant, quail, partridge (Galliformes).
katale-sili-tuna n. Ostrich -- the largest bird in the world, flightless with incredibly powerful legs and with the apocryphal habit of burying its head in the sand..
katale-sinata n. Hoe -- tool with a flat blade at a right angle to a long handle, used for weeding, planting and gardening..
katale-sisi-sinata n. Shovel -- a tool for lifting loose material consisting of a curved container or scoop and a handle.
katale-tepuse n. Clay -- soil that is plastic when moist but hard when fired.
kita-pale n. Sickle, reaping hook, reap hook -- an edge tool for cutting grass or crops; has a curved blade and a short handle.
lalu-kesinu n. Mettalurgy.
lalu-lupete n. Rust -- iron oxide, FeO2.
lalu-tile n. Liver.
lanase-tenete-nane n. Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus).
luka-tenete-nine n. Gar (order Semionotiformes).
nale-katale n. Sand, beach sand.
nale-lalu n. Anchor.
nale-tenete-nine n. Shark.
nana-pale n. Cattle prod -- an electrified pointed object designed for driving cattle..
nenu-kali n. Weasel word -- an equivocal qualification; a word used to avoid making an outright assertion.
nenu-kaneke n. Shell, eggshell -- the exterior covering of a bird's egg.
nenu-kasese n. Gamete.
nenu-kesinu n. Oology.
nenu-kiki-sinata n. Egg timer.
nenu-kunane adj. Oophagous.
nenu-kune n. Sperm.
nenu-kune-liku n. Semen.
nenu-lele n. Sperm -- the male gamete that joins the egg during fertilization.
nenu-lele-tile n. Testicle.
nenu-nane n. Monotreme, egg-laying mammal -- the most primitive mammals comprising the only extant members of the subclass Prototheria (e.g., echidna, platypus).
nenu-nasiku n. Cocoon -- a silken pupa produced by many lepidopterans.
nenu-nelu-kune n. Egg white, albumen, ovalbumin -- the white of an egg; the nutritive and protective gelatinous substance surrounding the yolk consisting mainly of albumin dissolved in water.
nenu-nine n. Sturgeon -- large primitive fishes valued for their flesh and roe; widely distributed in north temperate zone.
nenu-sili n. Chicken -- the common domestic fowl, Gallus domesticus, typically domesticated for egg production.
nenu-sunu-sinata n. Ocarina -- a musical instrument with a somewhat potato-like appearance, producing a flute-like tone.
nenu-tile n. Ovary.
nine-nenu n. Roe.
nutu-katale-sisi n. Burial; interment -- the placing of a corpse under the dirt.
palana-katale n. Soil -- dirt that is prepared or suitable for growing plants.
palana-nenu n. Seed.
pale-kali n. Abuse, insult, revilement, contumely, vilification -- a rude expression intended to offend or hurt.
pale-nine n. Sawfish (Pristis).
pale-palana adj. Ensiform -- having leaves resembling a sword blade.
pale-sunu-sinata n. Musical saw.
pale-tenete n. Incisor (c.f. catdent).
pale-tuna n. Sword -- a cutting or thrusting weapon with a long blade.
pale-tuna-tupe-palana n. Iris -- any plant of the genus Iris, which have narrow sword-shaped leaves with various colored flowers.
pe-salape n. Senior citizen -- a person from about his/her sixties on.
pe-salape-kune n. Young person/adolescent/teenager/teen/twentysomething/kid/young adult -- a person between childhood and adulthood. The length of "youth" varies from culture to culture, but as self-defined by most Americans in this group at the end of the millennium (say, c. 1980+2000) it seems to extend from about age 12 to about the late twenties..
pe-salape-kune-lele n. Young man, boy, guy -- a male person during adolescence.
pe-salape-kune-tepuse n. Youth -- the time between childhood and adulthood.
pe-salape-lele n. Old man.
pe-salape-sesete n. Old woman.
pe-salape-sesete-sesete n. Young woman, girl -- a female person during adolescence.
pe-salape-tepuse n. Old age -- the time in one's life in which one is a senior citizen.
pile-nenu n. Yolk, vitellus -- nutritive material of an ovum stored for the nutrition of an embryo, especially the yellow mass of a bird or reptile egg.
pusata-pale n. Letter opener, paperknife -- a dull knife used to cut open the envelopes in which letters are mailed.
salape-kalane n. Saying, expression -- a word or phrase that particular people use in particular situations.
salape-kasese n. Age -- how long something has existed.
salape-kesinu n. Archeology.
salape-kiki n. Year.
salape-kiki-kasese n. Age.
salape-kune n. Young object -- something that has existed for a relatively short time [scalar.
salape-kune-kalane-tuna n. Announcement, proclamation -- a formal public statement.
salape-lanase-kiki n. Foot.
tenete-kalane n. Dental X-ray.
tenete-kaneke-kune n. Gum; gingiva.
tenete-kesinu n. Dentistry.
tenete-lapati-sinata n. Toothbrush -- small brush with long handle used to clean teeth.
tenete-lele n. Molar -- a tooth made to slowly grind away.
tenete-lete n. Baby tooth.
tenete-liku n. Toothpaste.
tenete-lupete-tile-nasiku n. Katydid.
tenete-nuni adj. Toothless.
tenete-nuni-kunane-nine n. Pike (family Esocidae).
tenete-sesete n. Incisor -- a tooth made for ripping and tearing.
tenete-sunu-sinata n. Jaw harp, Jew's harp.
tenete-tuna n. Adult tooth, big tooth (e.g. the incisor from a sabre-toothed tiger).
tenete-tuna-nine n. Shark.
tepuse-salape adj. Ancient -- typical of an era several eras removed from the present.
tepuse-salape-lupete-lepeti n. Pterodactyl (order Pterosauria).
tepuse-salape-nale-lepeti n. Plesiosaur.
tile-katale n. Grime -- physical uncleanliness.
tile-salape-kasese n. Ageing; senescence; old age -- the deterioration of the body with age.
tunu-nenu n. Ovum, egg cell -- the female reproductive cell; the female gamete.
tu-pale n. Scissors -- a cutting implement having two crossed pivoting blades.

Lesson 14

Root Words

kutu [From Indo-European *okto(u), extant in English 'eight', 'octave', 'octogenarian', 'octopus', et al, extant in Greek and Latin /okto/, in Spanish, Hindi, German, Dutch, Italian, Esperanto and Novial.] Eight -- the cardinal number that is the sum of seven and one.
lanese [Latin 'lancea', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian), Germanic (English, Dutch) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial).] Spear, lance -- a long pointed rod used as a weapon.
nuka [From Russian /noga/, as there was no correspondence between the forms in the six cardinal languages (discounting using the English synonym 'member' to match Spanish 'miembro').] Limb -- one of the jointed appendages of an animal used for locomotion or grasping: arm; leg; wing; flipper.
pakale [From Arabic /bakar/, with initial /bak-/ in Spanish /baca/ 'vaca', with intial /b-/ in Russian /bik/, Hindi /bail/, English 'bovine', Italian 'bovino' and Esperanto & Novial 'bovo'.] Bovine, cow, bull -- any of various members of the genus Bos of either sex.
sanate [From Arabic /jamad/ and Hindi /jama/.] Freeze -- the act of freezing; the state of being frozen.
tenali [By extension from Latin 'denarius', which has inspired the term 'dinar' for a unit of currency in Algeria, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Tunisia, Yemen and Yugoslavia and is the Romance root of Spanish 'dinero' and Italian 'denaro'. With initial /d-/ in Russian /dyeng/.] Money -- the most common medium of exchange; legal tender.


The dative case marker, su, indicates the focus or referent of the action. Unlike the accusative or patient of the verb, it is directly acted upon.

Sesete pi kali se lele su.
female NOM word VB male DAT
A female said a word to a male.

Lele pakale pi kali se ne kali ke nenu su.
amphibian NOM word VB 2ND word ACC egg DAT
The bull said that word to the egg.

Pi tenali se le ke lanese su.
NOM money VB 1ST ACC lance DAT
They paid me for the lance.


kaneke-tuna-pulase-pakale n. Yak.
katale-nasiku-pakale-nasiku n. Aphid (family Aphidae).
kelu-kutu-pe n. 48-year old -- a person who has experienced 48 but not 49 years since birth.
kelu-nuka-nuni-pe n. Quadruplegic.
kutu-kelu-pe n. 84-year old -- a person who has experienced 84 but not 85 years since birth.
kutu-kune n. Negative eight, -8.
kutu-kutu-pe n. 88-year old -- a person who has experienced 88 but not 89 years since birth.
kutu-nu-pe n. 81-year old -- a person who has experienced 81 but not 82 years since birth.
kutu-pe n. Eight-year old -- a person who has experienced eight but not nine years since birth.
kutu-pene-pe n. 85-year old -- a person who has experienced 85 but not 86 years since birth.
kutu-pete n. Arachnid -- arthropods of the class Arachnida, such as spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks, characterized by four pairs of segmented legs (c.f. vosp).
kutu-sese-pe n. 86-year old -- a person who has experienced 86 but not 87 years since birth.
kutu-sete-pe n. 87-year old -- a person who has experienced 87 but not 88 years since birth.
kutu-silu-pe n. 80-year old -- a person who has experienced 80 but not 81 years since birth.
kutu-tenete-nusike n. Degu (Octodontidae) (c.f. voctformdentmuh).
kutu-ti-pe n. 83-year old -- a person who has experienced 83 but not 84 years since birth.
kutu-tuna n. 80.
kutu-tu-pe n. 82-year old -- a person who has experienced 82 but not 83 years since birth.
lanase-lupete-nuka-sili n. Albatross (Diomedeidae).
lanase-nuka-nusike n. Mara (Dolichotis).
lanase-nuka-sili n. Stilt (Himantopus).
lanese-kasese n. A hostile, distancing mannerism.
lanese-kune n. The non-phallic killer Areobie weapon used by Zena, Warrior-Princess.
lanese-lete n. Arrow -- a small spear-like weapon designed to fly through the air when shot by a bow..
lanese-lete-nine n. Archerfish.
lanese-lete-sili n. Arrow+bird.
lanese-pitakesulina n. Cuneiform.
lanese-tuna n. Any large, unlikely weapon used by Sylvester Stallone or Arnold Schwartzenegger in an action flick.
lupete-nuka n. Wing (of an animal).
lupete-nuka-nasiku n. Mantid; praying mantis (suborder Manteodea).
nale-lanese n. Harpoon.
nale-nuka n. Flipper.
nale-pakale n. Manatee, dugong -- a marine mammal of the order Sirenia..
nale-sanate n. Iceberg.
nale-tenali n. Sand dollar -- flattened disklike sea urchins that live on sandy bottoms.
nale-tenali-sata n. Sand dollar.
nine-nuka n. Fin.
nuka-lete n. Tail.
nuka-lete-nuni-nine n. Skate (suborder Rajoidei).
nuka-lete-tuna-nine n. Grenadier (family Macrouridae).
nuka-sisi n. Walking.
nuka-sutale adj. Multi-threaded.
nu-kutu-pe n. 18-year old -- a person who has experienced 18 but not 19 years since birth.
nu-silu-kutu-pe n. 108-year old -- a person who has experienced 108 but not 109 years since birth.
pakale-kalane n. Mooing.
pakale-lele n. Bull -- a male bovine.
pakale-lete n. Calf.
pakale-nasini n. Ox cart.
pakale-nasini-palate n. Cow vehicle part [cow-catcher.
pakale-nine n. Cowfish (Lactophrys).
pakale-pale n. Cattle prod -- a pointed object (often electrified) designed for driving cattle..
pakale-pitakesulina n. Boustrophedon -- a writing system in which the direction of lines is alternated, usually compared to the movement of an ox plough.
pakale-sesete n. Cow.
pakale-sili n. Cowbird (Molothrus).
pakale-sunu-sinata n. Cowbell.
pakale-tuna n. Buffalo.
pale-nuka-lete-nine n. Swordtail (genus Xiphophorus).
pene-kutu-pe n. 58-year old -- a person who has experienced 58 but not 59 years since birth.
pile-nuka-nine n. Yellowfin tuna.
pulase-tuna-pakale n. Buffalo.
pusata-tenali n. Postage, postage stamp, stamp -- a paper token affixed to an envelope or package indicating that a postal fee has been paid.
sanate-kesinu n. Cryogenics.
sanate-kune n. Melt.
sanate-lanase-sisi-sinata n. Ski -- one of a pair of long items placed under the feet for maneuvering down snow- or ice-covered hills.
sanate-lete n. Frost.
sanate-nasiku n. Ice bug (order Grylloblattodea).
sanate-nasini n. Ski.
sanate-natinu n. Crisis -- an unstable situation of extreme danger or difficulty, especially when a large group (nation) of people stop (freeze) and react together.
sanate-nine n. Icefish.
sanate-nusike n. Lemming -- a rodent that inhabits arctic regions, known for their mass migrations..
sanate-pakale n. Musk ox.
sanate-pesipitasi n. Snow.
sanate-pine n. Igloo -- an Eskimo hut built of blocks (usu. sod or snow) in the shape of a dome.
sanate-sili n. Penguin -- a flightless bird that inhabits (among other places) frozen Antarctic regions..
sanate-tepuse n. Ice age, glacial period, glacial epoch -- any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth's surface.
sanate-tile n. Gland that stimulates hibernation in animals (possibly hypothetical gland).
sanate-tuna n. Hypothermia.
sese-kutu-pe n. 68-year old -- a person who has experienced 68 but not 69 years since birth.
sete-kutu-pe n. 78-year old -- a person who has experienced 78 but not 79 years since birth.
sisi-nuka n. Leg.
sisi-nuka-lete-sili n. Wagtail, pipit (Motacillidae).
teke-kutu-pe n. Octogenarian -- adult from the age of 80 to 89.
telule-tenali n. Ransom, ransom money -- money demanded for the return of a captured person.
tenali-kalane n. Check, cheque.
tenali-kaneke-nu-pete n. Cowrie -- marine gastropods of the family Cypraeidae, typically with bright and shiny shells, and so used as currency in parts of Africa and the South Pacific.
tenali-kapina n. Check; cheque -- a piece of paper filled out in place of physical money, representing transference of a specified amount from the buyer's bank account to the seller's.
tenali-kasese n. Commerce.
tenali-kesinu n. Numismatics.
tenali-kune n. Financial debt.
tenali-lete n. Poverty.
tenali-nasini n. Armored truck -- a fortified vehicle that transports money and other highly valuable items, with armed drivers.
tenali-nuni adj. Broke -- without money.
tenali-nuni-pe n. Poor -- one or many having little money or few possessions.
tenali-pine n. Bank, monetary institution.
tenali-sikulu n. Coin -- a metal piece (usu. a disc) used as currency.
tenali-telule n. Chrematophobia.
tenali-tile n. The metaphorical fist or hand with with one stingily holds one to one's money.
tenali-tuna n. Wealth.
tenali-tunu n. Silver.
tesu-pakale n. Sacred cow.
ti-kutu-pe n. 38-year old -- a person who has experienced 38 but not 39 years since birth.
tile-sanate n. Frostbite.
tu-kutu-pe n. 28-year old -- a person who has experienced 28 but not 29 years since birth.
tu-kutu-tunu n. Nickel -- element of atomic number 28.
tupe-kune-nuka n. Leg -- the whole inferior limb, not the technical sense of only the part between the knee and ankle.
tu-tuna-kutu n. 28.

Lesson 15

Root Words

kalese [Latin 'classis', "class of citizens", extant in Russian, Spanish, English, et al.] Class, kind, type -- any number of objects or events with a common attribute.
lu [From Mandarin Chinese /lue/.] Fall -- the act or an instance of dropping (being pulled downward by gravity).
naseke [From Latin 'nascens', extant in Romance (Spanish, Italian, Esperanto and Novial) and English 'nascent'.] Birth -- the time when life begins.
pepe [Unknown origin.] Creation -- something made, constructed or created (but not as a synonym of "caused").
sepete [From Russian /svet/.] Flower, bloom, blossom -- reproductive organ of angiosperm plants esp. one having showy or colorful parts.
tale [From Hindi /tar/, matching last part of English /star/.] Star -- a multi-pointed stylistic representation of a star (celestial body) (typically five points, but can be any number).


When the dative directly follows the nominative, it typically indicates reflexive action.

Le pi ke tenali se.
1ST NOM ACC money VB
We paid each other.

Pi su kali se.
They said the word to each other.

Note that lu se takes the earth's gravity as the nominative agent and what is pulled down by gravity takes the accusative patient.

Sepete ke lu se.
flower ACC fall VB
The flower fell.

Sesete pakale ke lu se nale li.
female bovine ACC fall VB ocean LOC
The cow fell into the ocean.


kalese-kalane n. A message from a member of a group to a member of.
kalese-kesinu n. Sociology.
kalese-lete n. Subclass -- a class which is a subset of a larger class..
kalese-tuna n. Superclass -- a larger class which contains the smaller class as a subset..
kali-pepe n. Word-making -- the coining of new words.
kelu-palana-kalese n. Order.
kelu-pusata-kalese n. Fourth class, fourth-class mail -- mail consisting of merchandise and some printed matter weighing over eight ounces and not sealed against inspection (U.S. & Canada).
kelu-sata-kalese n. Order.
kutu-palana-kalese n. Subspecies.
kutu-sata-kalese n. Subspecies.
liku-lu v. Spill, shed, disgorge -- cause or allow (a solid substance) to flow or run out or over.
lu-kesinu n. Gravitology.
lu-kune n. Rise -- motion in opposition to the pull of gravity.
lu-kune-sinata n. Elevator -- apparatus for lifting passengers or equipment.
lu-nasini n. Parachute.
lune-sepete n. Rose -- any of several closely related ornamentals of the genus Rosa.
lu-pata n. Brink, threshold, verge -- a region marking a boundary.
nale-lu n. Sinking -- the act of sinking into the ocean.
nale-pepe n. Naval construction corps, such as the Seabees of the U.S. Navy.
nale-sepete n. Sea lily.
nale-tale n. Lodestar.
nana-lu n. Resistance (electrical).
naseke-kalane n. Birth announcement.
naseke-kapina n. Birth certificate.
naseke-kesinu n. Obstetrics.
naseke-kita-tile n. Placenta -- the vascular structure in the uterus of most mammals providing oxygen and nutrients for and transferring wastes from the developing fetus.
naseke-kune-pe n. Fetus -- a human being who has not yet been born.
naseke-kune-pe-nutu n. Miscarriage -- the natural death of a fetus during development and rejection from its mother's body.
naseke-kune-sata n. Fetus -- an animal who has not yet been born.
naseke-lepeti n. Garter snake (Thamnophis).
naseke-liku n. Amniotic fluid.
naseke-nutu n. 1. stillbirth, when referring to a baby 2. death in childbirth, when referring to a mother.
naseke-nutu-sikulu n. Reincarnation.
naseke-pe n. Newborn -- a human baby within the first few weeks after birth.
naseke-salape-kune-pe n. Newborn -- a human infant who has just been born.
naseke-sikulu-tile n. Navel, umbilicus, bellybutton, omphalos, omphalus -- scar where the umbilical cord was attached.
naseke-sili n. Stork (Ciconiidae).
naseke-tenete n. Primary tooth, deciduous tooth, baby tooth, milk tooth -- one of the first temporary teeth of a young mammal (one of 20 in human children).
naseke-tile n. Uterus, womb -- a hollow muscular organ in the pelvic cavity of females; contains the developing fetus.
naseke-tupuse n. Umbilical cord (c.f. nasctubbad).
naseke-tupuse-nane n. Placental mammal (infraclass Eutheria).
naseke-tupuse-tile n. Umbilical cord -- a vessel connecting the fetus with the placenta.
nasini-nutu-lu n. Crash.
nuka-naseke n. Breech birth -- a birth in which the baby comes out legs first rather than head first.
nu-palana-kalese n. Kingdom.
nu-pusata-kalese n. First class, first-class mail -- mail that includes letters and postcards and packages sealed against inspection (U.S. & Canada).
nu-sata-kalese n. Kingdom.
nutu-naseke n. Stillbirth -- the phenomenon of coming out of the birth canal dead.
nutu-naseke-sili n. Phoenix.
nutu-tuna-sata-kalese n. Genocide, extinction of a race or species.
palana-kalese n. Taxon -- any unit used in the science of biological classification (taxonomy) of plants, which have a universally recognized heirarchy.
pale-pepe n. Sword forging -- the act of creating a blade.
pe-kalese n. World, human race, humanity, humankind, human beings, humans, mankind, man -- all of the inhabitants of the earth.
pene-palana-kalese n. Family.
pene-sata-kalese n. Family.
pepe-kalane n. Notification something has started.
pepe-kali-sise n. Constructed language, invented language, model language -- a language deliberately created for some specific purpose.
pepe-kesinu n. Creation science.
pepe-kune n. Destroy -- cause the ruining or undoing of [v.
pepe-pine n. Factory -- building with facilities for manufacturing.
pepe-sata n. Monster -- imaginary creature typically made up of various human and animal parts.
pitakesulina-kalese n. Writing system, as in "Japanese has four writing systems".
pusata-kalese n. Class -- a type of mail depending on what is being sent, what it weighs and how it is packaged.
sata-kalese n. Taxon -- any unit used in the science of biological classification (taxonomy)of animals, which have a universally recognized heirarchy.
sata-kalese-lete n. Species.
sata-kalese-tuna n. Phylum.
sepete-kalane n. Flower sending -- flowers sent as a sign of love, sympathy or congratulations.
sepete-kesinu n. Horticulture.
sepete-lete n. Bud -- a partially opened flower or a swelling on a plant stem consisting of overlapping immature leaves or petals.
sepete-nasini n. Florist van.
sepete-palana n. Angiosperm, flowering plant -- a plant of the division that produces flowers.
sepete-sili n. Hummingbird.
sepete-sili-sunu-sinata n. Piccolo.
sepete-tupuse n. Stem.
sese-palana-kalese n. Genus.
sese-sata-kalese n. Genus.
sete-palana-kalese n. Species.
sete-sata-kalese n. Species.
sunu-pepe n. Utter -- express audibly, emit sounds (not necessarily words) [v.
tale-kapina n. The Zener card that has the star on the face.
tale-sata n. Starfish -- a marine invertebrate of the phylum Echinodermata, with a star-shaped appearance..
tile-kalese n. System -- one of the categories of connected organs that make up the body, such as the reproductive system, the respiratory system, the circulatory system, the nrevous system or the skeletal system.
tile-pepe n. A bodily product, as phlegm, blood or vomit.
tine-lu n. Twilight, dusk, nightfall -- the time of day immediately following sunset.
ti-palana-kalese n. Class.
ti-pusata-kalese n. Third class, third-class mail -- mail that includes all printed matter (except newspapers and magazines) that weighs less than 16 ounces and is unsealed (U.S. & Canada).
ti-sata-kalese n. Class.
tu-palana-kalese n. Division.
tu-pusata-kalese n. Second class, second-class mail -- mail that includes newspapers and periodicals (U.S. & Canada).
tu-sata-kalese n. Phylum.

Lesson 16

Root Words

kane [From Chinese /kan/.] Sight, vision -- the ability to see.
lene [From English 'learn', from a common Germanic root attested in German, Dutch, Esperanto, Novial.] Learning -- the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge.
nene [From Indo-European *newn, extant in Hindi *naw, Romance (Latin, Italian, et al), Spanish, Germanic (English, German, Dutch, et al) and auxiliaries (Esperanto, Novial, et al).] Nine -- the cardinal number that is the sum of eight and one.
pukuse [From Latin 'focus', "hearth, fire", extant in Romance (Spanish 'fuego', Italian 'fuoco', Portuguese 'fogo', Catalan & Romanian 'foc' and French 'feu') and English (in 'focus', 'fuel' and 'foyer'), strengthened by /f-/ starting German, English, Esperanto and Novial forms. Source: Raymond Brown.] Fire -- process of combustion.
sasale [From Arabic /shazar/, with /sh-/ in Mandarin Chinese /shu/.] Tree -- a tall perennial woody plant having a main trunk and branches forming a distinct elevated crown; includes both gymno- and angiosperms.
tata [Unknown origin.] Amphibian -- cold-blooded vertebrate of class Amphibia, typically living on land and breeding in water; aquatic larvae undergo metamorphosis.


The final of the six case markers is the ablative, which is marked by na and acts as a "catch-all" case: it can often be translated into English as "in a ____ manner" or "-ly". Unfortunately, because of its semantic flexibility, it is the most difficult case to translate back into idiomatic English.

Nasini pi sisi se tata na.
vehicle NOM movement VB amphibian ABL
The vehicle moves in an amphibious manner.

Pukuse pi pukuse se sasale ke sepete na.
fire NOM fire VB tree ACC blossom ABL
The fire blossomingly burned the tree. [figuratively:] Flames burst like flowers as they burnt the tree.

Lele ke lene se pepe na.
male ACC learning VB creation ABL
A male learns by creating.

The six case markers are derived from the Kali-sise word for alphabet, pitakesulina, which exhaustively illustrates all the sounds of the language. To review, pi is the nominative, ta the genitive, ke the accusative, su the dative, li the locative and na the ablative.

Le pi lene se kutu ta pe ke tata su sasale li pitakesulina na.
1ST NOM learn VB eight GEN people ACC amphibian DAT tree LOC alphabet ABL.
I taught eight people about amphibians in a tree proceeding alphabetically.


kane-kasese n. Picture.
kane-kesinu n. Optics.
kane-kune n. Blindness or to be blind, blinded.
kane-kune-sata n. Spirit -- any incorporeal supernatural being that can become visible or audible to human beings.
kane-lapati n. Eye washing -- cleansing the eye with droplets of liquid, using an eyedropper..
kane-lete n. Blurry, being blurred, grey.
kane-liku n. Contact lens solution.
kane-nuni adj. Blind.
kane-nuni-nine n. Cavefish (Amblyopsis).
kane-tile n. Eye, oculus, optic -- the organ of sight.
kane-tuna n. To assist sight.
kani-nuni-sasale-palate n. Nudibranchs.
kelu-kane-nine n. (c.f. harvisbadmin).
kelu-kane-tile-nine n. Anableps (genus Anableps).
kelu-nene-pe n. 49-year old -- a person who has experienced 49 but not 50 years since birth.
kutu-nene-pe n. 89-year old -- a person who has experienced 89 but not 90 years since birth.
lanese-lete-tata n. Arrow-poison frog (Dendrobatidae).
lene-kalane n. Lesson.
lene-kapina n. Flashcard -- a two-sided card studied to help memorize something (as arithmetic facts).
lene-kesinu n. Educational psychology.
lene-kiki n. School grade.
lene-nasini n. Schoolbus.
lene-pe n. Student -- a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution.
lene-pine-telule n. Scholophobia.
lepeti-tata n. Newt, salamander (Salamandridae).
lili-kane-sise n. Religion, faith -- a philosophy of life.
luna-kane-tile-nine n. Mooneye.
lupete-tata n. Flying frog (Rhacophorus).
nale-kane n. Seascape -- a view or picture from the sea.
nana-kane n. Television.
nasiku-tata n. Cricket frog (Acris).
nelu-kane n. Sunglasses, dark glasses, shades -- spectacles that are darkened or polarized to protect the eyes from the glare of the sun.
nene-kelu-pe n. 94-year old -- a person who has experienced 94 but not 95 years since birth.
nene-kesinu n. Enneagram-ology -- the field studied by psychologists who deal with the enneagram.
nene-kutu-pe n. 98-year old -- a person who has experienced 98 but not 99 years since birth.
nene-nene-pe n. 99-year old -- a person who has experienced 99 but not 100 years since birth.
nene-nu-pe n. 91-year old -- a person who has experienced 91 but not 92 years since birth.
nene-pe n. Nine-year old -- a person who has experienced nine but not ten years since birth.
nene-pene-pe n. 95-year old -- a person who has experienced 95 but not 96 years since birth.
nene-sese-pe n. 96-year old -- a person who has experienced 96 but not 97 years since birth.
nene-sete-pe n. 97-year old -- a person who has experienced 97 but not 98 years since birth.
nene-silu-pe n. 90-year old -- a person who has experienced 90 but not 91 years since birth.
nene-ti-pe n. 93-year old -- a person who has experienced 93 but not 94 years since birth.
nene-tuna n. 90.
nene-tu-pe n. 92-year old -- a person who has experienced 92 but not 93 years since birth.
nuka-nuni-tata n. Caecilian -- a worm-like burrowing amphibian of the order Gymnophiona.
nu-nene-pe n. 19-year old -- a person who has experienced 19 but not 20 years since birth.
nu-silu-nene-pe n. 109-year old -- a person who has experienced 109 but not 110 years since birth.
pata-katale-tata n. Mudpuppy (Necturus).
pene-nene-pe n. 59-year old -- a person who has experienced 59 but not 60 years since birth.
pukuse-kalane n. Fire alarm.
pukuse-kesinu n. Pyrotechnics.
pukuse-kita n. Fuel -- a substance that can be burned to provide heat or power.
pukuse-lepeti n. Salamander (a mythical animal having the power to endure fire without harm).
pukuse-liku n. Magma.
pukuse-lupete n. Smoke -- cloud of fine particles suspended in a gas.
pukuse-nasini n. Fire engine.
pukuse-sili n. Phoenix.
pukuse-sutale n. Flame.
pukuse-tale n. Nova (c.f. bombsol).
pukuse-tata n. Fire-bellied toad (Bombina).
pukuse-tupuse n. Chimney -- a vertical flue that provides a path through which smoke from a fire is carried away through the wall or roof of a building.
sasale-kasese n. Wood -- tissue of trees, often cut and dried especially for use as building material and fuel.
sasale-kasese-palate-lete n. Stick -- a small, broken-off piece of wood.
sasale-kasese-sunu-sinata n. Xylophone, marimba.
sasale-kasese-tupuse-palana n. Gnetophyte -- a plant of the division Gnetophyta (gymnosperms with wood-vessels).
sasale-kesinu n. Forestry.
sasale-nasiku n. Termite.
sasale-nasiku-nane n. Tree-shrew (Tupaiidae).
sasale-nasiku-tata n. Termite frog (Phrynomerus).
sasale-nasini n. Cherry picker.
sasale-nuni n. Ingratitude, ungratefulness -- a lack of gratitude.
sasale-nusike n. Squirrel.
sasale-nusike-nine n. Squirrelfish (order Beryciformes).
sasale-pesipitasi n. Dew -- water that has condensed on a cool surface overnight from water vapor in the air.
sasale-sili n. Woodpecker.
sasale-tata n. Tree frog (Hylidae).
sepete-pukuse n. Fireworks -- pyrotechnic explosions often with bright colors and a flower-like appearance, set off on festive occasions..
sese-nene-pe n. 69-year old -- a person who has experienced 69 but not 70 years since birth.
sete-nene-pe n. 79-year old -- a person who has experienced 79 but not 80 years since birth.
tata-kali-nine n. Drum (family Sciaenidae).
tata-kesinu n. Batrachology.
tata-nasini n. Amtrac (amphibious tractor) -- finned-track boat/truck used to carry troops from ship to shore.
tata-nine n. Toadfish (order Batrachoidiformes).
tata-sili n. Frogmouth (Podargidae, Batrachostomidae).
teke-nene n. Billion -- a number as represented as a one followed by nine zeroes (12 in Britain).
teke-nene-pe n. Nonagenarian -- adult from the age of 90 to 99.
tesu-kane n. Revelation -- a spiritual, enlightening or mystical vision or disclosure.
ti-kane-tile-lepeti n. Tuatara (Sphenodon punctata).
ti-nene-pe n. 39-year old -- a person who has experienced 39 but not 40 years since birth.
ti-pukuse n. Three-alarm fire.
tu-nene-pe n. 29-year old -- a person who has experienced 29 but not 30 years since birth.
tu-nene-tunu n. Copper -- element of atomic number 29.
tu-nuka-tata n. Siren (genus Siren).
tupuse-kane n. Tunnel vision.
tu-tuna-nene n. 29.
Conlang Profiles at © 1996-2005 Jeffrey Henning.

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