Sarkelean



Phonology
Because I began this language with absolutely no knowledge of linguistics, and without glimpse of the wonders to be found in the strange languages of the world, I cast its original phonology in the image of English. Since then, I have refined it, removed some sounds, added others, and resisted the temptations I have met along the way, such as adding lateral fricatives, palatal consonants, bilabials, and so on. Such sounds are simply not compatible with Sarkelean. Currently, there is really only one sound in Sarkelean that does not occur in English, that of the aspirated 's'. The following outlines Sarkelean phonology and the orthography used in romanization:

ë - this sound is a long 'e' sound, as in English 'pay'
e - this letter (without diaresis) is always a short 'e' as in 'bet'
a - as in English 'hat'
i - like the 'i' in 'machine'
o - as in 'no'
u - as in 'true'
ai - like English 'eye'
ëa - these two vowels are pronounced separately
th - always like English 'thing'
s - always unvoiced as in English 'so'
s' - this is an aspirated 's' sound, sort of like the 's-h' in 'cross-hatch' I suppose
r' - aspirated 'r'.
l' - aspirated 'l'.

Grammar
Plurals: Plurals in Sarkelean are simple and regularly formed based on the ending in the singular. The following sums up the forms:
Verbs: The Sarkelean verb has three tenses. They are the past, present, and future. The past is formed by placing the particle lë at the end of the present form of the verb. The future tense is formed by placing the particle thë after the present form of the verb. There is no special infinitive form, so the present tense is simply the verb as listed in the vocabulary section. The one exception to these rules is the verb dra, which forms its tenses by placing the particles before the verb instead of after it.
Examples:
dë therë 'he kills'.
dë therë-lë 'he killed', 'he was killing'.
dë therë-thë 'he will kill'.


Vocabulary
a      wind
ai     star
ailëa  creator
al     not
alara  to sway
al-athalu peace
alëna  bronze
alula  to be afraid
alulë  fear
apelë  mist
ar     how
arë    to tell [a story, anecdote]
arë    before (unrelated to arë above)
arëla  a travelling entertainer
aro    story, tale
asësë  wizard, magician
as'ë   north
as'ëvë guard, defender
as'uvë leader
atali  colloquial for 'courtier'
atha   unfortunate
athalu war
ba     a forceful 'no'
banla  bow (as in the weapon)
banlë  to draw or pull
bar    house, dwelling
bara   never
barë   eagle
bera   moon
buran  body
daga   bird
dagarë eating room
dagë   to eat
daka   there
daka   uncle (unrelated to daka above)
dal    seat
dala   girl
dalë   to sit
dana   bone
dar    skill
dara   excellent, great
de     O!
delenë to sell
delep  cat 
delepë to meow
delë   mr., sir
delë   to listen, hear (unrelated to delë above)
dera   love
derë   to love
desë   high lord; prince
dë     to become
dëla   woman
dëra   long
doro   hole
draka  fire
drakë  to burn
dran   old
drë    with, by
drë    future tense particle for verbs
drë    could, should, might
drëla  small
dri    maiden
enera  bright, shining
enë    to come
ëla    animal
ëla    to receive, obtain, procure (unrelated to ëla above)
elëa   to create
erë    after
ëtelë  hair
gar    clothes
har   rain
hari   to cut; blade
hel    school
helë   student
helu   teacher
i      and
ir     up
iresë  to ascend
irori  soft
is     table
ka    where
kada   child
kadro  boy
kala   young
kalarë help
kara   message
karë   messenger
kari   sword
kasa   to live (ie. dwell)
kasë   to send
kas'   tree
kava   useful
kekë   brother
kel    valley
kelë   to speak, talk
ker    light
kerë   to shine
kë     to see, watch
këa    soul, spirit
këbë   fat
këkë   every
kël    fish
këlëdal alphabet
këra   new
kërë to find
kika   insect
kila   sweet; honey
kivri  vegetable
ko     big
kor    rock, stone
korë   hill
korëko   mountain
kori   jagged, serrated
koru   hard
kosë   blue
kuro   leg
lada   child
lalë   life, to live
lalu   burden
lar    possession
larë   to have; to be able to
larë   town, community (unrelated to larë above)
larëko city
le     to, for
leda    the same
ledë   to join, unite
lelë   sister
lenë   to buy
lep    to poke; a point, dot
lëma   floor
li      future
lis    flower
lisë   to bloom
logo   to jump
lu     to fight
lul    surprise
lula   surprised
lulë   to shock, surprise
l'ar   must, should
l'unla   amethyst
mar    hand
melë   apple
mëda   song; to sing
mërë   to sleep
molu   fruit
-n     genitive ending
na     in, at
na     optional imperative particle for verbs
nalar  luck
nar    round ball of lead that you throw as a weapon
nara   to think
naralan thought, idea
narë   day
narë   to dance
ner    island
nera   knowledge
nerë   to know
në       if
nëan     maybe, perhaps
nënë   south
norë   to descend
o      but
odro   stupid
olothan meeting, formal gathering
ora    water
orako  ocean 
oro    to roll, toss
par    flatbread
rada   good, adequate
rai    beautiful
raka   aunt
ral    down
rara   mother
redë   to like
relë   miss, mrs., etc.
resë   high lady; princess
rë    eye
rëan   sight
rëden  jewel
rëka   to gather
rëla   many, much
rën    bit, little piece, etc.
rësa   basket
rësë   to weave
ri     festival
ri     comparative (like, as)
ril    die [as in dice]
rilë   to gamble
roko   ghost
rula   happy
rulë   to rejoice
r'ë     crystal; to sparkle
r'ëla   to forgive, pardon
r'ilu   to join, meet
saga   torch
saka   cup
salëka woods, forest
sandralë grass; green
sar    book, etc.
sarë   to read
sarin  man
sarkelë language
saro   to write
sasadrë to show
sathë  epic
seblë  from
sep    to do, make
së     air
së     to go (unrelated to së above)
sëka   towards
sëlë   to entertain
sëlë   map (unrelated to sëlë above)
sënë   to put
sëra   palace
sësë   magic
si     very
sidra  name
sikadrë husband
sila   merchant
siladrë wife
silë   to trade, barter
silnar hunter
silu   ware
sinblan peasant, the people
siri   a certain jungle flower of Sarkelëa
sisi   another, again
siv    ice
siva   to freeze
sivë   cold
soblë  strong
sola   quick
solan  speed
sovo   sometimes
suha   to seek
suiv   scimitar 
sul    bored
sula   boring
sulë   to bore
s'a    because
s'aka  red
s'akara blood
s'akarë to bleed
s'ako  jungle
s'an   all, whole
s'ar   dark
s'aran darkness
s'arë  to blacken; to hide
s'esi  a precious gem
s'ëla  people
s'ët   dew
s'ëvan defence
s'ëvë  to defend
s'ëvët armour
s'i    sky
s'ida  emperor
s'inla shadow
s'ira  empress
s'iri  snow
s'i? why?
s'itha world
s'o    night
s'oko  scary, frightening
s'usa  tired
s'uvan leadership
s'uvë  to lead, direct, conduct
tala   musical
talan  music
talë   to play music
talu   musician
tarë   province, region
tarë   to die (unrelated to tarë above)
tarëko empire
taro   death
tela   to greet
telë   helmet
tenlarë to have delusions of grandeur
të     that, this, those, these
tëra   to smile
tëra!  greetings!
tëva   to give
thalerë to irritate, annoy
thama   sandal
thar   mud, dirt
thëba  drum
thëlan compromise
thëra  murder
thila  leaf
tu     work
tur    height
tura   high
turë   to rise
vala   necessities
valë   to need
va   now
var    mind
vara   to reflect, ponder
vas'i   today
vera   silver
vë     past
vëla   time
vo     to want
vora   to woof, bark
voro   dog
vuna   mysterious
vunë   mystery

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